William T Grant Foundation
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quarterly goals to move you toward completion of your Professional Administrative Study (PAS). You will submit your Quarter Plan in the first week of the course and a final report during Week 10. It is important that you try to reach these quarterly goals, however, it is not unlikely that some goals will not be met on time, whereas others will be exceeded. For example, it may be that you are delayed getting your IRB application approved and so that holds you up in Quarter 3. However, once it is approved, you may collect data in half the time you originally planned in order to reach the goals set out in Quarter 4. The completion of a PAS is a long, intense, iterative process. While the course provides structure, deviations are to be expected.
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Please you will use the below William T. Grant Foundation
Identification of the client organization and background
Organization under is research is William T Grant Foundation. The William T Grand Foundation is a non-profit organization based in America. The organization was established in 1936 and it’s named after William Thomas Grant who is one of the founders. The organization focuses on two principal activities. First, it’s reducing the inequality in youth outcomes, and second, it’s to improve the use of research evidence in public policy and practice settings. The organization aims to achieve its two goals through funding research in social sciences, career development, and mentoring programs. The foundation has challenged universities to ensure that they support long term research practice to help solve inequality among the youth.
From the description of its main activities, it’s evident that the main objective of the organization is to improve young people (aged between 5 and 25) lives. To accomplish its primary objective, the organization has engaged in capacity building activities, institutional challenges programs, and unlimited communication as a way of strengthening the connection between research, policy, and practice. Also, the organization funds career development promotion, mentorship programs and awarding of research works. As a way of promoting the utilization of evidence-based on the findings of the researches funded in decision making, this organization provides a comprehensive report on how the evidence was acquired, how it can be understood and applied. Lastly, aside from reducing inequality among the young people, this organization aims to generally reduce inequality whether by immigrant origin, economic standings or race (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). From the discussion above, it’s justifiable to say that William T Grant Foundation believes that for inequality to be eliminated both in the child welfare, justice systems, education system, and other relevant domains, supporting research through adequate funding is relevant.
The main problem that this paper will focus on addressing is the issue of inequality in youth outcomes. Inequality of outcomes occurs when people in society do not possess similar living economic standards (Hällsten, 2014). Generally, the issue of inequality of the outcome has been on the rise worldwide (Cingano, 2014). That is why the UN in conjunction with the Civil Society made a series of consultations in 2015 to help shape the post-2015 development agenda that aimed to achieve a just and sustainable world free from poverty (Hällsten, 2014). All this happened after it was discovered that globally, young people are faced with challenges of getting meaning education, exercising their rights, and barriers to age-appropriate health services (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). For example, as a result of not getting meaningful education and appropriate health services, UNAIDS has reported that in sub-Saharan Africa alone, the new HIV infections have risen to 60% of all the infected people in the region and there were indications that the figure could go up with time. In the US alone, 15% of the entire population is living below the poverty line based on the report by the United States Bureau of Census. Statistically, the report by the US Bureau of census stipulates that 16.1 million children and 30.4 million adults live below the poverty line (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). Despite being the country with the best living standards in the world, the US has also been found to be a leading country with inequality in children.
According to (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015) despite there being several factors that are associated with equality in the society, the fact is that children growing up in affected areas have limited chances as compared to those brought in better environments (Cingano, 2014). This is so because these children from poor backgrounds face many challenges during the earlier stages of their lives up to when they enter adulthood (Cingano, 2014). For example, children from poor families are easily subjected to poor health since they are unable to afford quality healthcare. Also, these children are subjected to poor education since most of the low-income neighborhoods schools have limited resources. As a result, most of these children end up in crime if not engage in menial jobs to earn a living (Cingano, 2014). Its inequalities among young people that result in variations that lead to poverty. When these young people grow old and have their children, inequality begins again.
Adam Gamoran, who is the president of William T. Grant Foundation, put his voice on this matter by stating that; modernity has been defined by the challenge of inequality. He further stated that there is a need for research to be done to help establish means of reducing the inequality among children. Even though the number of people especially the youth living in poverty has been reduced in some countries, the economic gaps have continued to grow (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). Therefore, there is a need for research to be done to help establish the means of reducing inequality in society.
Purpose of the study
This study aims to carry out research on the inequality outcomes among the youth and devise possible measures that can be put in place to reduce the inequality outcome among the youth. This will be done by investigating administrative and policy factors causing inequality among young people. In doing this, much attention will be focused on the policies that affect education, health, and employment. This is so because the policies and the administrative procedures to be scrutinized are known to affect both children and parents in the affected communities. For example, various policies influence low income within marginalized communities. These policies are designed to alleviate poverty in these marginalized communities but instead, they have done the opposite (Cingano, 2014). Based on the findings of the study, recommendations for variable strategies will be provided to help mitigate the issue at hand. This will help establish an environment that provides equal outcomes among the young people regardless of race, ethnicity or economic standings. Therefore, the findings of this study will be of great help in the shaping of public policies.
The study will first, provide an understanding of how specific policies affect individuals from different environments in a holistic manner. This is so because as aforementioned above, these policies have had a negative impact on most of the communities even though they were created to provide solutions. Secondly, the findings of the study will greatly impact policymakers. This is so because these findings will form a foundation that the policymakers will use to reformulate these policies by discharging the redundant ones. Advocacy activities aimed at reforming redundant policies to increase equality among young people by lobby groups and public administrators will also be grounded on these findings. Further to this, the future studies that will be addressing the relationship between inequality outcomes among young people and the public administration will base their arguments on this paper.
By doing this, the study will have achieved a just and sustainable society that is free of poverty. This study will involve the collection of data about the inequality outcomes in a particular region and their effects on the youth of the same area. Therefore, since the inequality outcomes such as meaningful education and quality healthcare vary, they are the independent variable. On the other hand, the youth becomes a dependent variable, and the study will focus on determining how the changes in inequality outcomes are likely to affect the child of a particular region.
The nature of the research
This is an observational study design. An observational study design is a type of study design that aims to understand the cause and the effect without controlling assigning of the subjects in a particular group and the treatment of the subjects (Hällsten, 2014). This research design has numerous advantages, including simplicity. This type of research design is the most simple of all. This is so because it does not require any technical knowledge to observe the data and everybody in the world can observe things. Another advantage is that it’s useful in framing hypotheses. This is so because it’s possible for the researcher to get acquainted with the observed by continuously observing a phenomenon. For example, through observing the behavior, perceptions, and the problems of the people, a researcher gets insights that are helpful in hypothesis formation. The third advantage of this method is high accuracy. Unlike controlled experiments where results can be manipulated, in the observational type of research design the researcher can check the efficiency from the observed. Observation as a method of data collection is independent of the willingness of people to report. In many occasions, the respondents are not willing to share information to the outsiders mostly because they do not have time to provide important information. Observational research is a solution to such instances since the researcher takes time to observe the findings by himself. Lastly, the observational method of data collection is universal. This is so because it can be used to collect data in all sciences whether physical or social (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). Therefore, unlike other methods of data collection, the observational method of data collection has a greater universality of practice. That is why this method is commonly used, easily followed and accepted (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015).
However, despite having numerous advantages, this type of research design has some disadvantages. One such drawback is that there are some occurrences that cannot be observed. Therefore, the design is limited to observational activities only. The second disadvantage is that the observational research is organic, therefore, the researchers have little control over the environment (Locke, Spirduso, Silverman, 2014. As a result, it’s not possible to justify the insights collected with time. In addition to this, there is a high potential for subjective bias unless its experts are carrying out the research. Another disadvantage is that observation is no reliable method of data collection. This is so because social phenomena cannot be controlled or experimented, therefore, observation will only make a summary of the findings which can lead to errors.
From the above discussion, it’s evident that although this method has some disadvantages it’s generally accepted which makes it ideal for this research.
1. How does inequality outcomes affect youth?
In this study two major theories are involved. Since the research deals with the inequalities in the society, the two theories involved are theories of social inequality, and they include; functionalist theory and the conflict theory. The functionalist theory strongly believes that inequality plays a vital role in society; therefore, inequality must exist in every community (Doob, 2015). The reason inequality must exist in a society based on this theory is that it helps to create balance. For example, a society with all its population working and earning good salaries will lack people who can do casual work. Since casual work is very vital in stabilizing the economy, it’s therefore normal for some people to be poor so that they can be hired to do such work. Based on this theory, it’s therefore normal for the youths to be affected by various inequality outcomes. This is so because inequalities among the youths help to create a population of people that can be used for some work that is vital for the economy. In addition to this, this theory believes that since essential positions in any society require more training, people holding such posts should be highly rewarded.
On the other hand, the conflict theory view inequality to result from oppressors or more influential people in a society exercising their power over the less powerful (Hurst, 2016). Based on this theory, the most powerful people in society want to maintain their status while the less powerful are working to climb the ladder. The only way for the most powerful to maintain their status is by suppressing the less powerful in society. They do this by denying the less powerful vital resources such as quality healthcare, housing, and clean water. Even though the less powerful continue to fight to go up the ladder, they end up at the same level because they don’t have enough resources that are required for them to go up the ladder. Based on this theory, it’s therefore right to say that the youth suffer in society because they are less powerful. This is so because the affected youths in the society do not have access to quality services such as meaningful education that their peers from wealthy families have. Even if the young people from these affected areas work hard in school with the aim of passing, most of them end up failing because of the stress they are subjected to as a result of inequality. This theory believes by oppressing the less powerful in society, and social justice is not achieved, which in the end affects development.
Sources of data and plan for the collection
This is an observational type of research therefore, the envisioned sources of data include information collected by the ministry of public service, youth and gender Affairs on the inequalities among the youth. Also, relevant information will be obtained from the NGOs dealing with Youth affairs in the region of research. The plan for the collection of this useful information entails following due diligence that is, seeking permission from relevant bodies. This will involve writing to the cabinet secretary of Youth and Gender Affairs through his secretary explaining why I need to access the aforementioned data and when I intend to collect the data. Also, it will be essential to indicate personal contacts for the secretary to reply to the letter. Lastly, the letter will clarify the number of people that will be allowed to access the data in the government officers. The same letter will be sent to the relevant NGOs seeking their permission for the same. The envisioned timeline for completion is three months. This is so because the time that government departments and NGOs will take to reply data is known. If they delay, it means that the completion time will be longer than the time given. However, if the relevant bodies respond in advance, then the time taken will shorter.
Significance of the research
This research is significant because of many reasons. First, by establishing solutions to inequalities in society, it’s straightforward to achieve a just and sustainable society. The community has suffered injustice as a result of inequality outcomes. This is so because, with inequality outcomes, it means that some people are not treated fairly. When people are not treated fairly, it means that those people are suffering while those who are mistreating them are enjoying, which is unjust. Therefore, through this research, measures that will ensure all people are treated the same are established. When these measures are implemented, justice will be restored in society. Also, through this research, the future for the youth is bright. Youths will form the next generation. But when those youths are faced with challenges of inequalities, they will not be able to form the next generation. This research ensures that the issues of inequality outcomes that negatively affects the youth are dealt with so that the youth can have healthy lives. Lastly, this research is significant in that it creates awareness of the negative effects of inequality in society. Most people are victims of inequality, but they don’t know. Through this research, such kind of people gets informed on how inequality affects their lives.
Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015). Income inequality and health: a causal
review. Social science & medicine, 128, 316-326.
Cingano, F. (2014). Trends in income inequality and its impact on economic growth.
Doob, C. (2015). Social inequality and social stratification in US society. Routledge.
Hurst, C. E., Gibbon, H. M. F., & Nurse, A. M. (2016). Social inequality: Forms,
causes, and consequences. Routledge.
Locke, L. F., Spirduso, W. W., Silverman, S. J. (2014). Proposals that work: A guide
for planning dissertations and grant proposals (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
I have attached the quartely plan template to be used as a guide and the PAS guidelines