Western Europe Daily Work #1- instructions attached

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Western Europe Daily Work #1- instructions attached

Western Europe Daily Work #1- instructions attached
W orld H is to ry M r. M attk e N am e: W ere textile factories bad for the health of English workers? Click here for the documents. D ocu m en t A M ic h ael W ard w as a d octo r i n M anch este r f o r 3 0 y ea rs. H is p ra ctic e t r e a te d s e vera l c h ild re n w ho w ork ed i n M anch este r f a cto rie s. H e w as i n te rv ie w ed a bout t h e h ea lth o f t e xtile f a cto ry w ork ers o n M arc h 2 5, 1 819, b y t h e H ouse o f L ord s C om mitte e. T he e xch ange b elo w i s a n e xcerp t f r o m t h e i n te rv ie w . “ Q uestio n : G iv e t h e c o m mitte e i n fo rm atio n o n y our k now le d ge o f t h e h ealth o f w ork ers i n c o tto n-fa cto rie s. A nsw er : I h av e h ad f re q uen t o pportu nitie s o f s e ein g p eo ple c o m in g o ut f ro m t h e f a cto rie s a n d o ccasio nally a tte n din g a s p atie n ts . L ast s u m mer I v is ite d t h re e c o tto n f a cto rie s w ith D r. C lo ugh o f P re sto n a n d M r. B ark er o f M an ch este r, a n d w e c o uld n ot r e m ain t e n m in ute s i n t h e f a cto ry w ith out g asp in g f o r b re ath … Q uestio n : W hat w as y our o pin io n o f t h e r e la tiv e s ta te o f h ealth b etw een c o tto n-fa cto ry c h ild re n a n d c h ild re n i n o th er e m plo ym en ts ? A nsw er : T he s ta te o f t h e h ealth o f t h e c o tto n-fa cto ry c h ild re n i s m uch w ors e t h an t h at o f c h ild re n e m plo yed i n o th er m an ufa cto rie s. Q uestio n : H av e y ou a n y f u rth er i n fo rm atio n t o g iv e t o t h e c o m mitte e? A nsw er : C otto n f a cto rie s a re h ig hly u nfa v oura b le , b oth t o t h e h ealth a n d m ora ls o f t h ose e m plo yed i n t h em . T hey a re r e ally n urs e rie s o f d is e ase a n d v ic e. Q uestio n : H av e y ou o bse rv ed t h at c h ild re n i n t h e f a cto rie s h av e p artic u la r a ccid en ts ? A nsw er W hen I w as a s u rg eo n i n t h e i n fir m ary , a ccid en ts w ere v ery o fte n a d m itte d t o t h e i n fir m ary , t h ro ugh t h e c h ild re n ‘s h an ds a n d a rm s h av in g b ein g c au ght i n t h e m ach in ery ; i n m an y i n sta n ces t h e m usc le s, a n d t h e s k in i s s tr ip ped d ow n t o t h e b one, a n d i n s o m e i n sta n ces a f in ger o r t w o m ig ht b e l o st. L ast s u m mer I v is ite d L ev er S tr e et S ch ool. T he n um ber o f c h ild re n a t t h at t im e i n t h e s c h ool, w ho w ere e m plo yed i n f a cto rie s, w as 1 06. T he n um ber o f c h ild re n w ho h ad r e ceiv ed i n ju rie s f ro m t h e m ach in ery a m ounte d t o v ery n early o ne h alf . T here w ere f o rty -s e v en i n ju re d i n t h is w ay.” S ourc e: H ouse o f L ord s C om mitte e ( In te rv ie w er) & M ic h ael, W . ( In te rv ie w ee). ( 1 819). 1 . W hy i s D r. W ard b ein g i n te rv ie w ed b y t h e H ouse o f L ord s C om mitte e? 2 . W hat d oes h e m ean w hen h e r e fe rs t o f a cto rie s a s “ n urs e rie s o f d is e ase a n d v ic e”? 3 . W hat e v id en ce d oes D r. W ard u se t o b ack h is c la im t h at f a cto rie s w ere u nhealth y a n d u nsa fe f o r c h ild re n ? D ocu m en t B E dw ard H olm e w as a p hysic ia n w ho l iv ed i n M anch este r E ngla nd d urin g t h e f ir st h alf o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry. H e w as a n a ctiv e m em ber v a rio us a ca dem ic s o cie tie s a nd a sso cia tio ns a nd a w ell- r e g ard ed d octo r. I n 1 818, h e w as i n te rv ie w ed b y t h e H ouse o f L ord ’s C om mitte e a bout h ea lth c o nditio ns o f f a cto rie s. T he e xch ange b elo w i s a n e xcerp t f r o m t h e i n te rv ie w . “ Q uestio n : H ow l o ng h av e y ou p ra ctic ed a s a p hysic ia n i n M an ch este r? A nsw er : T w en ty -fo ur y ears … Q uestio n : H as t h at g iv en y ou o pportu nitie s o f o bse rv in g t h e s ta te o f t h e c h ild re n w ho a re o rd in arily e m plo yed i n t h e c o tto n-fa cto rie s? A nsw er : I t h as. Q uestio n : I n w hat s ta te o f h ealth d id y ou f in d t h e p ers o ns e m plo yed ? A nsw er : T hey w ere i n g ood h ealth g en era lly . I c an g iv e y ou p artic u la rs , i f d esir e d , o f M r. P oole y ’s f a cto ry . H e e m plo ys 4 01 p ers o ns; a n d, o f t h e p ers o ns e x am in ed i n 1 796, 2 2 w ere f o und t o b e o f d elic ate a p peara n ces, 2 w ere e n te re d a s s ic k ly , 3 i n b ad h ealth , o ne s u bje ct t o c o nvuls io ns, 8 c ase s o f s c ro fu la ( tu berc u lo sis ): i n g ood h ealth , 3 63. Q uestio n : A m I t o u nders ta n d y ou, f ro m y our i n vestig atio ns i n 1 796, y ou f o rm ed r a th er a f a v oura b le o pin io n o f t h e h ealth o f p ers o ns e m plo yed i n c o tto n-fa cto rie s? A nsw er : Y es. Q uestio n : H av e y ou h ad a n y o ccasio n t o c h an ge t h at o pin io n s in ce? A nsw er: N one w hate v er. T hey a re a s h ealth y a s a n y o th er p art o f t h e w ork in g c la sse s o f t h e c o m munity … . Q uestio n : W ho a p plie d t o y ou t o u nderta k e t h e e x am in in g o f t h ese c h ild re n i n M r. P oole y ’s f a cto ry ? A nsw er : M r. P oole y.” S ourc e: H ouse o f L ord s C om mitte e ( In te rv ie w er) & H olm es, E . ( In te rv ie w ee). ( 1 818). 1 . H ow i s t h e s o urc e i n fo rm atio n f o r t h is d ocu m en t s im ila r t o a n d d if f e re n t f ro m d ocu m en t A ? 2 . W hat e v id en ce d oes D r. H olm e u se t o b ack h is c la im a b out t h e h ealth o f c h ild re n i n f a cto rie s? D o y ou t h in k t h is i s c o nvin cin g e v id en ce? 3 . W hy m ig ht i t m atte r t h at M r. P oole y a sk ed D r. H olm e t o e x am in e t h e c h ild re n a t h is f a cto ry ? 4 . W hic h d ocu m en t, A o r B , d o y ou t h in k i s m ore t r u stw orth y ? W hy? D ocu m en t C J o hn B ir le y w as b orn i n L ondon i n 1 805. H e l o st b oth h is p are n ts b y t h e a ge o f 5 , a nd h e w as s e n t t o t h e B eth nal G re en W ork h ouse . H e s o on b eg an w ork in g a t t h e C re ssb ro ok f a cto ry. J o hn w as i n te rv ie w ed a bout h is e xp erie n ces a s a c h ild w ork er a t t h e M ill i n 1 849. A n a rtic le o n h is l ife w as p ublis h ed i n t h e n ew sp aper, t h e A sh to n C hro nic le i n M ay 1 849. B elo w i s a n e xcerp t f r o m t h e a rtic le . “ O ur r e g ula r ( w ork in g t im e) t im e w as f ro m f iv e i n t h e m orn in g t ill n in e o r t e n a t n ig ht; a n d o n S atu rd ay, t ill e le v en , a n d o fte n t w elv e o ‘c lo ck a t n ig ht, a n d t h en w e w ere s e n t t o c le an t h e m ach in ery o n t h e S unday. N o t im e w as a llo w ed f o r b re ak fa st a n d n o s ittin g f o r d in ner a n d n o t im e f o r t e a. W e w en t t o t h e m ill a t f iv e o ‘c lo ck a n d w ork ed t ill a b out e ig ht o r n in e w hen t h ey b ro ught u s o ur b re ak fa st, w hic h c o nsis te d o f w ate r- p orrid ge, w ith o atc ak e i n i t a n d o nio ns t o f la v our i t… W e t h en w ork ed t ill n in e o r t e n a t n ig ht… M r. N eed ham , t h e m aste r, h ad f iv e s o ns: F ra n k, C harle s, S am uel, R obert a n d J o hn. T he s o ns a n d a m an n am ed S w an n, t h e o verlo oker, u se d t o g o u p a n d d ow n t h e m ill w ith s tic k s. F ra n k o nce b eat m e t ill h e f rig hte n ed h im se lf . H e t h ought h e h ad k ille d m e. H e h ad s tr u ck m e o n t h e t e m ple s a n d k nock ed m e d ate le ss. H e o nce k nock ed m e d ow n a n d t h re ate n ed m e w ith a s tic k . T o s a v e m y h ead I r a is e d m y a rm , w hic h h e t h en h it w ith a ll h is m ig ht. M y e lb ow w as b ro ken . I b ear t h e m ark s, a n d s u ff e r p ain f ro m i t t o t h is d ay, a n d a lw ay s s h all a s l o ng a s I l iv e… I w as d ete rm in ed t o l e t t h e g en tle m an o f t h e B eth nal G re en p aris h k now t h e t r e atm en t w e h ad , a n d I w ro te a l e tte r p ut i t i n to t h e P ost O ff ic e… S om etim e a fte r t h is t h re e g en tle m en c am e d ow n f ro m L ondon. B ut b efo re w e w ere e x am in ed w e w ere w ash ed a n d c le an ed u p a n d o rd ere d t o t e ll t h em w e l ik ed w ork in g a t t h e m ill a n d w ere w ell t r e ate d . N eed ham a n d h is s o ns w ere i n t h e r o om a t t h e t im e. T hey a sk ed u s q uestio ns a b out o ur t r e atm en t, w hic h w e a n sw ere d a s w e h ad b een t o ld , n ot d arin g t o d o a n y o th er, k now in g w hat w ould h ap pen i f w e t o ld t h em t h e t r u th .” S ourc e: B ir le y, J . ( 1 9 M ay 1 849). T he A sh to n C hro nic le 1 . W hat t y pe o f d ocu m en t i s t h is , a n d w hen w as i t w ritte n ? 2 . H ow o ld w as J o hn B ir le y w hen t h is a cco unt w as p ublis h ed ? 3 . W hic h d ocu m en t, A o r B , d oes t h is a cco unt m ore c lo se ly m atc h ? H ow ? 4 . W hy d id J o hn B ir le y n ot t e ll t h e t r u th a b out l if e w ork in g i n t h e m ill t o t h e i n sp ecto rs ? D ocu m en t D E dw ard B ain es w as a n ew sp aper j o urn alis t a nd e d ito r f o r t h e L eed s M erc u ry N ew sp aper. I n t h e 1 830s, h e w as e le cte d t o P arlia m en t, a nd s e rv ed t h ere a s a p olitic a l l ib era l. A lth ough B ain es s u pporte d t h e e n d o f s la very a nd v a rio us p olitic a l r e fo rm s, h e o ppose d l e g is la tio n r e g ula tin g f a cto rie s a nd e xte n din g v o tin g r ig hts t o t h e E nglis h w ork in g c la ss. T hese a re e xcerp ts f r o m h is b ook H is to ry o f t h e C otto n M anufa ctu re i n G re a t B rita in . “ It i s a lle g ed t h at t h e c h ild re n w ho l a b our i n f a cto rie s a re o fte n c ru elly b eate n b y t h e s p in ners o r o verlo okers , t h at t h eir f e eb le l im bs b eco m e d is to rte d b y c o ntin ual s ta n din g a n d s to opin g, a n d t h ey g ro w u p c rip ple s. T hat t h ey a re c o m pelle d t o w ork t h ir te en , f o urte en o r f if te en h ours p er d ay. V ie w s s u ch a s t h ese h av e b een r e p eate d ly g iv en o f f a cto ry l a b our w hic h h av e p ers u ad ed m an y t o t h in k t h ey m ust b e t r u e. B ut t h is i s t h e e x cep tio n n ot t h e r u le … … The h um an f ra m e i s l ia b le t o a n e n dle ss v arie ty o f d is e ase s. M an y o f t h e c h ild re n w ho a re b orn i n to t h e w orld , a n d w ho a tta in t h e a g e o f t e n o r t w elv e y ears , a re s o w eak ly , t h at u nder a n y c ir c u m sta n ces t h ey w ould d ie e arly … … None o f t h e w ork i n w hic h c h ild re n a n d y oung p ers o ns a re e n gag ed i n m ills r e q uir e c o nsta n t a tte n tio n. I t i s s c arc ely p ossib le f o r a n y e m plo ym en t t o b e l ig hte r. T he p ositio n o f t h e b ody i s n ot i n ju rio us: t h e c h ild re n w alk a b out, a n d h av e t h e o pportu nity o f f re q uen tly s ittin g i f t h ey a re s o d is p ose d … … If a s p in ner c an n ow p ro duce a s m uch i n a d ay a s h e c o uld l a st c en tu ry h av e p ro duced i n a y ear, a n d i f g oods w hic h f o rm erly r e q uir e d e ig ht m onth s t o b le ach a re n ow b le ach ed i n t w o d ay s, s u re ly t h ese a re t h e v ery c au se s o f t h e a m azin g e x te n sio n o f t h e m an ufa ctu re , a n d a re t h ere fo re , s u bje cts o f r e jo ic in g, n ot o f l a m en ta tio n.” S ourc e: B ain es, E . ( 1 835). H is to ry o f t h e C otto n M anufa ctu re i n G re a t B rita in . 1 . W ho w ro te t h is a rtic le ? W hen w as i t w ritte n ? 2 . W hy d id B ain es w rite t h is a rtic le ? 3 . W hat d oes h e m ean a t t h e e n d o f t h e f ir s t p ara g ra p h, w hen h e s ta te s, “ B ut t h is i s t h e e x cep tio n n ot t h e r u le ”? 4 . W hat i s B ain es’ m ain p oin t i n t h e f in al p ara g ra p h? 5 . W hic h d ocu m en t, A o r B , d oes t h is a cco unt m ore c lo se ly m atc h ? H ow ? 6 . W ho d o y ou t h in k i s a m ore t r u stw orth y s o urc e, B ir le y o r B ain es? W hy? P uttin g I t A ll T ogeth er … P le ase w rite a p ara g ra p h u sin g e v id en ce f ro m a ll s o urc es t o r e sp ond t o t h e p ro m pt: were textile factories bad for the health of English workers?

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