This paper should contain your research question/hypothesis, an abstract, an introduction/problem statement and a literature review. Your Research Question/Hypothesis: Your specific research question(

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This paper should contain your research question/hypothesis, an abstract, an introduction/problem statement and a literature review.

Your Research Question/Hypothesis: Your specific research question(s) or hypotheses should be stated in your introductory paragraph and in your abstract.

Abstract: Your proposal will begin with an abstract of your proposed study (one paragraph). This is basically a summary of your proposal and it includes your research question. Introduction/problem statement (1-2 paragraphs): After the abstract, research proposals generally begin with an introductory section that describes the research problem and establishes its significance. This section answers the following kinds of questions: What exactly do you want to study? Why is it worth studying? Does the proposed study have theoretical and/or practical significance? Does it contribute to a new understanding of a phenomenon (e.g., does it address new or little-known material or does it treat familiar material in a new way or does it challenge an existing understanding or extend existing knowledge)?

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Literature Review (2-3 pages): This section is a review of the literature on your topic. It is basically a term/research paper on your topic and tells the reader information that has already been discovered regarding your topic. The research problem or objective needs to be situated within a context of other scholarship in the area(s). The literature review presents a discussion of the most important research and theoretical work relating to the research problem/objective. It addresses the following kinds of questions: What have others said about this area(s)? What theories address it and what do these say? What research has been done (or not done) previously? Are there consistent findings or do past studies disagree? Are there flaws or gaps in the previous research that your study will seek to remedy?

Three sources are required. All 3 sources must be from an academic journal, not books, newspaper articles or magazine articles. You may use these as additional sources beyond the required 3 journal articles. This section requires in-text citations in APA format. You must document your sources using the social sciences standard citation method, APA. This method is actually simpler than MLA. For example, to cite a textbook after you talk about a theory, you need only put the author’s last name and year of publication: His lack of self-control suggests Latent Trait (Siegel, 2008). Then in your References (bibliography), you write: Siegel, L. (2008). Criminology: the core. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. To find out the rules for APA style, please refer to the Berkeley Libguide at: You can also look at the APA guide from the library at CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice. .

You can also look at the OWL Purdue Writing Lab: Also, some databases, such as Proquest, will automatically put its listed sources in APA format for you. You can also use citation assistants online or in Microsoft Word. Lastly, you can always go to the ASC for assistance in writing, paraphrasing, and referencing. Include only those articles that support the logic of the argument and/or the proposed research methods. For instance, if you are interested in studying juvenile delinquency; the literature review would include studies on that topic, not domestic violence. Discuss recent developments and potential avenues for new research. Review the discussion and conclusion sections of most scholarly articles – the authors will identify ways to improve and/or expand research of a particular issue. Using the information is a good way to come up with unique research ideas. Finally, your independent variable and dependent variable should be the framework to use in developing the literature review. Remember that your hypothesis will seek to test the relationship between the two core variables, so knowing what the literature says about those two variables will become critical

This paper should contain your research question/hypothesis, an abstract, an introduction/problem statement and a literature review. Your Research Question/Hypothesis: Your specific research question(
10 THE IMPACT OF POLICE BUDGET ON COLD CASE INVESTIGATIONS IN TRENTON AND IRVINGTON Student’s Name School Affiliation Table of Contents Abstract 3 Introduction 3 Research Question 5 Significance of the Study 6 i.Academicians 6 ii.United States Department of Justice 6 Literature Review 7 i.Constructivist Theory 7 ii.Learning Theory 8 References 10 Abstract Cold case investigation is a developing worry because of the increasing numbers of perplexing cases and mainstream society needs. This paper will stroll through what a cold case is, the way one starts, and what the police financial budget has meant for the result of a cold case investigation in Irvington and Trenton. Every year the number of cold cases in the U.S. goes up, yet with inadequate funding and the absence of monitoring, something must be done to hold the numbers down. A devoted cold case unit is the most appropriate response to this issue. Introduction A case gradually begins to become cold when endeavors are made, and a result is inexistent. Fifty years prior, our nation had a low freedom rate for manslaughters and other genuine violations. By and large, examiners contributed very little to tackling cases and depended on witnesses and watch officials for cases to “clear themselves”. Just a simple 3% of list violations were tackled by analytical endeavors. The subsequent stage is to figure out which arrangements and systems are best in settling cold cases. During this research, key questions will be tended to, for example, do contrasts in association of cold-case work and levels of funding of cold-case examinations produce contrasts in freedom rates? The subsequent protest will be to figure out what sort of cases are bound to be settled with the accessible police budget plan and ways of expanding the level of the budget. There will be a need to foster models for focusing on cold case examinations dependent on case attributes. By looking at these destinations, we can more readily investigate and give direction to various authorities about resource allocation. It is realized that the most well-known type of cold case being tackled in Trenton and Irvington is manslaughters, trailed by rapes and robberies. It is insane that organizations don’t place sufficient subsidizing into these cool cases. As indicated by the review, most offices do exclude cold-case examinations as a detail in their financial plans, and the minimum allocation of finances for cold-case examinations is $35,000. The most widely recognized type of institutional support by organizations to help cold-case work is by additional time pay and travel costs for examiners to seek after leads. Without the offices’ support in extra time pay and travel expenses, that truly restricts the measure of time an examiner has working with a cold case. In case there is a hot lead for the situation, and the specialists shift going to end, they aren’t completely placing their time and energy into addressing it. The equivalent goes for paid travel, that without having the option to additionally investigate data in regards to witnesses, your case stops at state or region lines, and probably it’ll end up going cold once more. One more strategy utilized by organizations is relegating senior examiners to work cases and demonstrating admittance to insightful information bases. In general, there ought to be admittance to analytical data sets. Regardless of the developing notoriety of cold case units, little is known with regards to how cold case examinations are led and subsidized or how regularly they are effective. The examination behind this report will be meant to add, as far as anyone is concerned of how cold casework is coordinated and financed and what elements are probably going to create an effective examination. Research Question What is the impact of the police budget on cold case investigations in Trenton and Irvington? Significance of the Study The study will be of great importance to academicians and the United States department of justice. Academicians These are further researchers who will review the research paper to further academic studies and gain academic credit. They will draw from this work the major areas of study which relate to their academic research topics. They will try to fill the gaps that have not been addressed in this study. United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice will use this work to improve the administration of justice and improve the police budget used to solve cold cases to ensure that there is a fast clearance of all pending cases in Irvington and Trenton. Literature Review This chapter contains a review of various theories explaining the impact of the police budget on cold cases in Irvington and Trenton. The variables used in the study will be the independent variable; Cold cases, while the Police budget will be the dependent variable. This chapter will be concluded with a summary of the literature review. Constructivist Theory This hypothesis expects that information is built by the student and qualities individual request, different reasoning, and numerous viewpoints. Learning is self-guided, and students are given freedoms to control, decipher, try different things with, and modify information. This research study on cold cases uses a constructivist way to deal with ways of dealing with budget constraints that are contextualized and dynamic (Brookman, Maguire & Maguire, 2019). Learning is self-controlled and interceded through legitimate, perplexing, not well-organized issues. According to Brookman, Maguire & Maguire (2019), The audit of a cold case has various arrangements ways and expects students to make decisions regarding which ideas to apply, what data is pertinent to the situation, and what could be a possible analytical lead. This theory expects the researcher to utilize significant level intellectual abilities, dynamic, and to give proof to help claims. Learning Theory The examination of cold cases addresses an incredible educational methodology in illuminating the police budget that can be sufficient in tackling cold cases. This technique works with the learning system through the utilization of information to poorly organized issues in the genuine world, credible settings. Learning approaches that urge people to think fundamentally, work together with peers, and join different viewpoints in real exercises. Networks of training are established in the arranged cognitive theory. In many cases, a cold case will commonly include significant lawful offense violations or rough conduct, like assault or murder (Chapman et al., 2019). Unlike most strange minor violations, a cold case, because of its vicious topic, is regularly not exposed to a legal time limit. Besides fierce wrongdoings, a missing individual may likewise be viewed as a cold case if the casualty has not been seen or heard from for a specific measure of time, for example, the instance of Natalee Holloway or other notorious missing individual cases. According to Chapman et al. (2019), a few cases become marked as a cold case when an apparently settled case is re-opened because of the presence or disclosure of new proof, which immovably focuses away from the first suspects. The present circumstance happens shockingly regularly and frequently happens because of premature delivery of equity. Other cold cases will happen when the wrongdoing being referred to is found after the episode occurred (Chapman et al., 2019). The present circumstance normally emerges when agents find remaining human parts. A case is considered cold until a suspect has been distinguished, charged and thusly went after for the wrongdoing being referred to (Lee, 2020). A case that goes preliminary and doesn’t bring about a conviction can likewise be assessed as a cold case and kept on the books forthcoming the conveyance of new proof. Commonly, a case isn’t settled; however, criminology or DNA proof will help decide whether the wrongdoing and suspect associated with the wrongdoing act in a sequential nature. Now and then, a feasible suspect might be neglected or basically disregarded because of unsubstantial proof, the presence of a copycat or a propensity of examiners to focus on another suspect while barring any remaining prospects. Lee (2020) states that a cold case will be reexamined through the presence of a few factors, for example, new measurable proof, a new glance at old proof or the communication of new incidental proof. Different elements will include: new observers offering novel data, new presumes who were recently neglected, or the presence of vindication observes who might insist or abjure their unique stories. References Brookman, F., Maguire, E. R., & Maguire, M. (2019). What factors influence whether homicide cases are solved? Insights from qualitative research with detectives in Great Britain and the United States. Homicide studies, 23(2), 145-174. Chapman, B., Keatley, D., Oatley, G., Coumbaros, J., & Maker, G. (2019). A review and recommendations for the integration of forensic expertise within police cold case reviews. Journal of Criminal Psychology. Lee, Y. H. (2020). How police policies and practices impact successful crime investigation: Factors that enable police departments to “clear” crimes. Justice System Journal, 41(1), 37-62.

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