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Question 1 Grief is a natural and expected reaction to losing a loved one, particularly in the medical field, where end-of-life care is prevalent in hospice and palliative care settings. However, new nurses in palliative care units may struggle with the emotional complexity of a patient’s death due to their lack of experience in end-of-life care, which can ultimately affect their ability to provide quality nursing care. As a result, they may experience feelings of guilt, distress, and confusion. In addition, they may struggle to understand appropriate practices for dealing with death and grief, leading to self-blame and excessive focus on the patient’s death. Marsden et al. (2022) have found that new nurses may also experience isolation from colleagues and mentors due to their unfamiliarity with appropriate practices for managing death and grief. The stigma surrounding death and grief may also prevent new nurses from discussing their emotions with others, leaving them overwhelmed and alone. In supporting new nurses in managing the emotional toll of their work, it is essential to provide interventions such as mentorship, training on grief and loss, and creating a supportive work environment (Barrué & Sánchez-Gómez, 2021). This can help new nurses develop resilience and the capacity to provide compassionate care to patients and their families. To cope with the grief associated with a patient’s death, new nurses in palliative care can use several strategies. One of the most effective coping strategies identified by Tari-Keresztes et al. (2022) is peer support, which involves seeking support from colleagues and friends to provide an understanding ear and a safe space to express emotions. Peer support can help new nurses cope with negative emotions such as guilt, distress, and confusion by providing emotional support and a means to express their feelings. However, it is essential to note that peer support should not involve discussing the details of the patient’s death but instead focus on seeking emotional support and reflecting on one’s feelings. Nurses who receive peer support have reported lower levels of psychological distress, which allows them to cope better with the death of a patient (Labrague, 2021). Peer support can also increase the nurse’s resilience, enabling them to manage future patient deaths better. Moreover, it can help new nurses understand and cope with the complex emotions associated with patient death, reducing the risk of burnout, and enhancing job satisfaction. In addition to peer support, self-care is another crucial strategy for managing negative emotions, including grief. Nurses can practice self-care by engaging in activities that help them relax and unwind, such as walking, reading, or listening to music. Prioritising physical health by getting adequate rest and eating nutritious meals is also crucial. Studies have shown that self-care nurses have lower stress levels and better overall health (Linton & Koonmen, 2020). The value of self-care has been highlighted by Lewis et al. (2022), who found that collaborative self-care practices, rather than individual strategies, were effective in helping frontline healthcare workers manage work-related stress during the Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, self-care can help nurses cope with grief and prevent burnout, ultimately improving their well-being. New nurses in palliative care units may find it challenging to manage the emotional toll of a patient’s death due to their lack of experience in end-of-life care. However, peer support and self-care are crucial strategies for managing grief and negative emotions associated with a patient’s death. Therefore, providing necessary resources and support, such as mentorship and training, can help new nurses develop resilience and the capacity to provide compassionate care to patients and their families. By doing so, healthcare organisations can ensure that their staff can manage the emotional impact of end-of-life care, ultimately improving the quality of care provided to patients and their families. Question 2 Patient-centred care is a vital approach in healthcare that prioritises each patient’s unique needs and preferences. Patient-centred care is critical in aged care and palliative care, where patients are often vulnerable and have complex care needs. It involves treating patients with their needs, values, and beliefs and involving them in their care as much as possible. In aged care, patient-centred care promotes independence and quality of life. It involves getting to know each patient, their background, preferences, and interests and tailoring care to meet their needs. This approach can reduce loneliness and social isolation by promoting social interaction and engagement in meaningful activities, such as outings or group activities. Additionally, patient-centred care involves respecting patients’ wishes, such as their clothing, meal preferences, and other personal preferences. In palliative care, patient-centred care is critical to meeting patients and their families emotional and physical needs. It involves providing comfort and support rather than attempting to cure the illness. Patient-centred care in palliative care includes treating the person’s emotional, social, and spiritual needs and physical symptoms. This approach can help to reduce pain and suffering and ensure that patients and their families feel cared for and supported. Research has shown that patient-centred care can improve patient satisfaction, quality of life, and self-perceptions while reducing stress. For example, Araki (2019) found that patient-centred care can improve patients’ self-perceptions and reduce their stress levels. An Australian study also demonstrated that patient-centred practices, such as involving patients in handovers, can enhance the satisfaction of both patients and nursing staff (Araki, 2019). Bhidayasiri et al. (2020) highlighted that patient-centred care could also improve the care experience for palliative patients’ families. To improve the quality of palliative healthcare in the facility, WSNH should adopt patient-centred care, as Ito et al. (2022) recommended. Patient-centred care can improve patient satisfaction with care, increase their understanding of their condition, and better communicate their needs and preferences to their care team.  Furthermore, adopting patient-centred care can ensure that residents’ dignity and autonomy are respected and that their overall experience in the facility is positive and empowering. Patient-centred care is integral for healthcare providers, particularly in aged care and palliative care. It promotes mutual respect and collaboration between patients, families, and healthcare professionals. By adopting patient-centred care, WSNH can provide high-quality end-of-life care and improve the overall experience for residents and their families. Patient-centred care involves treating patients as individuals, respecting their preferences and choices, and involving them in their care as much as possible.  Question 3 Palliative care is a specialised form of healthcare that aims to improve the quality of life for patients with serious illnesses. It is a comprehensive approach that requires the collaboration of healthcare professionals from different disciplines to ensure patients receive the best possible care. This collaborative approach allows medical institutions to provide individualised care plans for each patient, considering their physical, emotional, and social needs. The multi-disciplinary team typically includes physicians, nurses, social workers, pharmacists, chaplains, and other healthcare professionals, each playing a critical role in palliative care. One of the primary benefits of the collaborative approach to palliative care is that it ensures that all aspects of care are addressed, leading to better patient outcomes. The collaboration between different disciplines ensures that each professional plays a vital role in the patient’s overall care, leading to comprehensive and holistic care. For example, a social worker can help financially and legally, while a nurse provides emotional support. In addition, collaborative teams are more likely to adhere to evidence-based practices, improving patient outcomes and quality of life (Tahan, 2020). Collaborative efforts have been found to improve patient satisfaction and enhance symptom management among palliative care patients (Hui et al., 2021). Patients and families feel better supported and more empowered throughout the care process, leading to increased satisfaction with the care received. Furthermore, collaboration and teamwork reduce patients’ time waiting for appointments and completing paperwork, which is crucial in palliative care (Klaassen et al., 2021). This approach also reduces the costs associated with providing care, such as time and resources wasted as patients seek services from one professional to the next, ultimately saving valuable resources. Early multi-disciplinary collaboration in palliative care has improved patients’ quality of life (Kochovska et al., 2020). This approach allows healthcare professionals to provide a more individualised and comprehensive care plan, improving patient outcomes. Collaborative efforts also promote greater healthcare coordination, improving communication and reducing errors. This approach enhances the ability of medical institutions to provide quality care to palliative patients, ultimately improving their reputation as high-quality institutions that meet patients’ needs and provide the best palliative care possible (Hallman & Newton, 2019). Collaboration and teamwork among healthcare personnel ensure that palliative patients receive comprehensive care that meets their physical, emotional, and social needs while reducing errors and improving overall patient outcomes. The multi-disciplinary approach ensures that each aspect of care is addressed, resulting in improved patient satisfaction and reduced costs. Medical institutions prioritising collaborative efforts will be better equipped to provide quality care to palliative patients, ultimately enhancing their reputation as high-quality institutions that meet patients’ needs and offer the best care possible. As such, healthcare professionals from different disciplines must work together to ensure the best possible outcomes for palliative care patients. Araki, M. (2019). Patient centered care and professional nursing practices. Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, 1(1), 1004. Barrué, P., & Sánchez-Gómez, M. (2021). The emotional experience of nurses in the Home Hospitalisation Unit in palliative care: A qualitative exploratory study. Enfermería Clínica (English Edition), 31(4), 211-221. Bhidayasiri, R., Panyakaew, P., Trenkwalder, C., Jeon, B., Hattori, N., Jagota, P., … & Fernandez, H. H. (2020). Delivering patient-centered care in Parkinson’s disease: challenges and consensus from an international panel. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 72, 82-87. Hallman, K., & Newton, S. (2019). Outpatient Palliative Care: A case study illustrating clinic support offered to patients receiving cancer treatment. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 23(2). Hui, D., Hoge, G., & Bruera, E. (2021). Models of supportive care in oncology. Current opinion in oncology, 33(4), 259. Ito, K., George, N., Wilson, J., Bowman, J., Aaronson, E., & Ouchi, K. (2022). Primary palliative care recommendations for critical care clinicians. Journal of Intensive Care, 10(1), 20. Klaassen, H., Dukes, K., & Marchini, L. (2021). Patient satisfaction with dental treatment at a university dental clinic: A qualitative analysis. Journal of dental education, 85(3), 311-321. Kochovska, S., Ferreira, D. H., Luckett, T., Phillips, J. L., & Currow, D. C. (2020). Earlier multidisciplinary palliative care intervention for people with lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Translational lung cancer research, 9(4), 1699. Labrague, L. J. (2021). Psychological resilience, coping behaviours, and social support among health care workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A systematic review of quantitative studies. Journal of nursing management, 29(7), 1893-1905. Lewis, S., Willis, K., Bismark, M., & Smallwood, N. (2022). A time for self-care? Frontline health workers’ strategies for managing mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. SSM-Mental Health, 2, 100053. Linton, M., & Koonmen, J. (2020). Self-care as an ethical obligation for nurses. Nursing ethics, 27(8), 1694-1702. Marsden, K. M., Robertson, I. K., & Porter, J. (2022). Stressors, manifestations, and course of COVID-19 related distress among public sector nurses and midwives during the COVID-19 pandemic first year in Tasmania, Australia. Plos one, 17(8), e0271824. Tahan, H. M. (2020). Essential case management practices amidst the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis: part 2: end-of-life care, workers’ compensation case management, legal and ethical obligations, remote practice, and resilience. Professional Case Management. Tari‐Keresztes, N., Girdler, X., Gupta, H., Clarke, B., Christie, B., A. Smith, J., … & Harris, V. (2022). ‘Like a family in the end’: Improving mental health Recovery skills through Peer‐to‐Peer communication in Darwin, Australia. Health & Social Care in the Community. KATARINA JOSIPOVIC – 22038013

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