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Tackling smoking for the Indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people Question 1 According to Cohen et al. (2021), Indigenous people are intellectually, physically, spiritually, and emotionally connected to their land or birthplace. However, the Indigenous groups lack a formal education system, are discriminated against, lack employment, and their rights are abused. According to the Health government website, around 37% of the national deaths by Indigenous people are caused by smoking people above fifty years. (Which health government and where did you get the statistic from. Include reference + in text reference). This is a preventable death through sensitisation programs and providing the Indigenous with alternatives. For the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the program will help reduce the uptake of e-cigarettes and promote healthier lifestyles and life expectancy rates. (Mention e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes) There are numerous reasons for tackling smoking in Indigenous community; smoking occurs when toxic dust particles are introduced to the body through the mouth or nose. Due to the toxicity of the smoke, the lungs and heart are under constant pressure, which puts the patient at medical risks like coronary heart disease, hypertension, lung failure and many types of cancer. The Indigenous people lack education and formal employment, meaning they do not have money to pay hefty hospital bills when diagnosed with either of these diseases caused by smoking. (Rutu Foundation, ND). (Mention their access to Medicare and how many use it) Smoking also puts others at risk; Indigenous people’s smoking affects the entire society, even the nonsmokers since the impacts are similar after inhaling the smoke from cigarettes. For example, they risk lung cancer and heart attacks. Therefore, implementing these programs will shield the entire society. In addition, mothers who smoke tend to have underdeveloped infants and higher miscarriage rates. By smoking elimination, people will live longer. (Cats in AM. n.d.). The program is dedicated to helping Indigenous people to stop smoking and live healthier and happier lives. Question 2 There are several ways the program is designed to meet Indigenous people’s needs, firstly is knowledge of the substitutivity of their cultures. The program has an ILED factsheet about the Indigenous people, their ways of life and details that are sensitive to them. Second, through cultural acknowledgements, the program is fine-tuned to meet the interests and knowledge of different groups while impacting their view towards the smoking process. Third, the program involves engaging the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the program development. (Maddox et al., 2019). Since they understand their culture and reasons for smoking better by involving them, one develops more insights to eliminate the negative traits. For example, they may be smoking to relieve stress from the social injustice caused by discrimination. The programs also recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander diversity. The program acknowledges the history of smoking shared over generations, experienced, cultures and languages within the group. The program has been changed to include the languages of the local groups in targeting unemployed and uneducated individuals. As more people learn about the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’s discrimination and social injustices end since they understand their responsibility towards equality, especially the government people. (Thomas & Calma, 2020). The program involves more empowerment for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders to look for employment, get rights to own land, preserve their culture and help them understand their rights. The tackling smoking program considers and involves the viewpoints and opinions of locals. Question 3 The program will improve Indigenous people’s health in different ways, helping end avoidable illnesses like cardiovascular illnesses and cancer. Heart disease is often caused by increased smoking since toxic smoke is introduced to the body. Other related heart diseases include hypertension and stroke. While cancer occurs when cells misbehave, Indigenous people cannot cover all costs associated with treating cancer, so their mortality rates are higher. In addition, smoking is associated with COPD and asthma, which are breathing illnesses that may cause fatality, especially for children. NAACCHO. (N.D.). Secondhand smoke is a significant issue within these groups since some parent’s smoke within the same home with their children, which, once inhaled, caused adverse impacts on health. Although smokers may not be affected, their friend’s and family’s results may get tragic. Ending smoking saves money for healthcare systems and patients; due to high taxation rates, cigarettes are relatively expensive, especially when several packets are taken daily. Healthcare costs are relatively higher for the patient, while hospitals must channel resources to help smokers, which would be used to cater for other uncontrollable illnesses. Healthcare insurance companies also spend more money reimbursing hospitals for smokers, which increases the premium rates. Physical health is improved after the program since, with weak lungs; people cannot engage in activities like walking long distances, running and cycling. Therefore, their physical fitness deteriorates gradually. Reconciliation Australia. (2023). Mental health deteriorates with increased smoking since such people become depressed, stressed, and anxious. Finally, quitting smoking will be significant in health promotion to save future generations from adverse climatic conditions. Question 4 From this activity, I have understood various perspectives of the Indigenous people that are often ignored. My previous understanding of the Indigenous people was their hostility and poor education uptake levels. After the activity, I learned about the historical injustices and discrimination they have faced. They have rich cultures, and most smoking habits are passed from parents to children. For the program’s success, there should be an understanding of such cultural variations and how to eliminate the negative impacts on health. (Maddox et al., 2019). Around 37% of mortality among Indigenous people is caused by smoking. (Health government website).(Unclear which government website – include in text and reference) Such deaths are avoidable through relevant smoking elimination programs. I have understood that smoking affects individuals and their close family and friends. Secondhand smoking occurs when people inhale smoked by cigarettes despite not smoking directly; that is why children’s asthma and COPD cases have increased relatively when parents smoke in the same building with children. I understand Indigenous people’s health can be changed gradually but through assessment and systematic improvement of the society. It involves changing such groups’ norms, language, cultures, and considerations. Just advocating for health improvement programs will not be significant. Smoking is used by these groups to end stress and anxiety due to discrimination and injustices Indigenous people have faced. The first move will involve ending such discrimination and advocating for equality. Additionally, smoking causes additional mental issues due to stress since good mental health programs are not advocated for. Generally, the tackling smoking program will improve the patient’s physical, mental, and financial health. References Cats in AM. (n.d.). introduction to cultural safety and cultural humility. From https://catsinam.org.au/ Cohen, R., Maddox, R., Sedgwick, M., Thurber, K. A., Brinkley, M. M., Barrett, E. M., & Lovett, R. (2021). Tobacco-related attitudes and behaviours in relation to exposure to the Tackling Indigenous Smoking Program: Evidence from the Mayi Kuwayu Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20), 10962. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/20/10962/pdf Maddox, R., Waa, A., Lee, K., Henderson, P. N., Blais, G., Reading, J., & Lovett, R. (2019). Commercial tobacco and Indigenous peoples: a stock take on Framework Convention on Tobacco Control progress. Tobacco Control, 28(5), 574-581. https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/tobaccocontrol/28/5/574.full.pdf NAACCHO. (N.D.). Aboriginal health in Aboriginal hands. From: https://www.naccho.org.au/ Reconciliation austraria. (2023). Supporting Indigenous Governance. From: https://www.reconciliation.org.au/ Rutu foundation. (ND). Indigenous-Led Education Network. From: https://www.rutufoundation.org/indigenous-led-education-network/ Thomas, D. P., & Calma, T. (2020). Tackling Indigenous smoking: a good news story in Australian tobacco control. Public Health Research & Practice, 30. https://www.academia.edu/download/89685698/34965512.pdf

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