Population Based Epidemiology Final Exam Study Guide • Thefinal examcovers allmaterialfromthe entirecourse, includingModule10! • 75questions.Eachworth4points.Thisisasignificantportionofyouroverallcoursegrade. • Mixofmultiple choice and True/False questions • Start your final exam early in the week and save your answers. You can work on it a little each day. Students who wait until Sunday to start on the exam often struggle to complete it successfully. • Review yourquizzes o To access previous quizzes, follow the steps in the View Quiz Submission Content article. • Ialso recommendreviewingthe textbook.Notre-readingchapters.Butbe familiarwithwhere youwill find information. This is essentially an open-text exam. The better handle you have on the textbook content,theeasier(and faster!)itwill be to find the answers.
Be able to define: • Epidemic (common and pointsource) • Cyclic fluctuations • Health disparities • Operations Research • HumanBiological Clock Phenomenon • Residual disorder • Nativity • Gini Index • SpotMap • Treatment crossover • Washoutperiod • Attributable Risk • Case clustering • Crude deathrate • Proportional mortalityratio • Standardized mortality ratio • Prevalence (point andperiod) • Incidence rate • Relative risk • Odds Ratio • Null hypothesis • Triangular Populationdistributions • Dynamic Population • Age cohorteffects • Survival curves • Efficacy • Treatment arm • Confounding • Externalvalidity • Internal validity • Selection bias Know the importance of… • John Cassel • John Graunt • John Snow • William Farr • Socrates • Henle-Koch Postulates • EIS Program • Framingham HeartStudy • HHANES • WHO • MEDLINE, TOXLINE • Freedom of InformationAct • National HealthSurvey • GIS • Mill’s Canons Beabletocalculate: • Direct AgeAdjustment • Proportional mortalityratio • Crude deathrate • Cause specific mortalityrate • Odds Ratio (and rememberApproximatingRisk=OddsRatio) • Relative Risk • Etiologic Fraction • Population Etiologic Fraction Be able to compare: • Epidemiology vs. ClinicalCare • Levels ofprevention • Descriptive Epidemiology vs.Analytic • Ratio vsProportion • Prevalence vs.Incidence • Observation studies vs. intervention studies • Case Control vs.Cohort Be able to describe and c` haracterize: • Epidemiology o Uses o AIMS • Data sources and criteria fortheutility of epidemiologic data o Registries o Health Insurancedata o Morbidity Surveys o Death CertificateData o US Census o Vital Statistics • Descriptive Epidemiology o Why (purpose) o Person, Place, andTime o Impact • Levels ofprevention o Primary, Secondary,Tertiary • Leading Causes ofDeath • Study design o Ecologic studies o Cross sectionalstudies o Case Controlstudies o Cohortstudies Exposurebased Population based Retrospective Prospective Historical Prospective(Ambispective) o Controlled trials Clinical Community • Conditionsthatshould bemetfortheOR to approximateRR • Setting up 2x2tables o Exposure variable o Outcome variable • Assessing clinical endpoints • Randomization • Confounding • Matching o Why,when, how doesit help • Criterion ofCausality • Phases ofthe policy cycle
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