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DO NOT COPY This sample outline covers content from a Biology course NOT this A&P course. Use it as a guide to help you format your outline. SCIN130 : Introduction to Biology with Lab – The Outline Student Name and Section Number Assignment 2 Outline : APUS oak (Americanus quercus ) I. Introduction A. Common and scientific names 1. Common names: APUS oak tree, APUS oak . 2. Scientific Name: Americanus quercus (Arbor Day Foundation, 2016) . B. Observed where? 1. Th is tree is commonly found in Charles Town , West Virginia where I cu rrently reside. 2. I have observed this organism at the local park, growing along roadsides and in the yards of personal residences near my home. 3. The g eographic range extends across northeastern North Am erica , Canada and into West Virginia. 4. It can be found as far west and north as Idaho. C. Why I chose this organism ? 1. This tree makes a beautiful canopy. Include your in-text citations. Use alphanumeric sequencing . 2. It is considered an ornamental tree which people choose to plant in their residential yards for shade, aesthetics and longevity. 3. It is also a source of lumber since it is a hardwood and sought after due to its durability. 4. I moved to this location recently and wanted to learn more about the local flora. 5. I’m considering landscaping options so learning more about the APUS oak may help me to decide if this tree is a good choice to plant in my yard. D. Image Oak Leaf and Acorns (Image credit: Pixabay, Acorn Oak Leaf, 2019) II. Body A. Physical Description 1. Leaves: 2-6” long, 5 to 11 lobes w ith interspersed sinuses . 2. Twigs: Red to white with rounded buds. 3. Fruit: 0.5 to 1” acorns which are green to dark brown and bitter – tasting . 4. Bark: Young trees will have a dark colored bark. Make sure to title and cite the source of the image you use. a. as tree ages, bark may tinge red. b. fully mature tree will develop bark fissures (20 -20 Site, 2012). 5. Flowers: Female and male flowers form on separate branches a. female 3 -lobed stigma forms on the oak twig . b. male catkins or aments, form as yellow, sting -like structures (Oak Flowers, n.d.). 6. Size: Can reach up to 100 feet in height with a canopy of 150 feet in diameter . B. Life Cycle and Reproduction 1. Life Cycle a. Follows the life cycle of a hardwood tree . b. The acorn prefers cold, wet conditions for germination. 1) optimum temperature is 34 º F for 90% acorn germination . c. The s eedling can grow in shade but grows best in full sun . d. The sapling stage exhibits steady growth until full canopy is achieved (Godman and Mattson, 1980) . e. Sexual maturity arrives when the ability to produce flower s occurs at approximately 25 years . f. Can live between 200 to 400 y ears. 2. Reproduction a. Flowers bloom between March to May. Use credible and scholarly source s to support your outline. Use brief detailed and descriptive phrases. b. Trees are m onoecious . 1) The f emale and ma le flowers are present on the same tree but located on different parts of branches . c. Pollination of the female flowers occurs primarily by wind. 3. Acorns mature late in summer and fall from trees (Oak Flowers, n.d.) . C. The leaf s tructure and function 1. Anatomy a. The leaves may have from 5 to 11 lobes. b. Leaves have a primary midrib and radial veins. c. The base of the leaf (margin) follow s up to the first lobe interspersed with sinuses. d. The petiole attaches the leaf to the branch. e. APUS oak leaves attach alternate o n branches. 2. Physiology a. Leaves function to produce food for the tree. b. Leaves convert energy from sunlight into complex molecules via photosynthesis . c. Chlorophyll present in leaves captures photons . d. A series of reactions inside plant cell chloroplasts produces water, oxygen and carbohydrates (Bassow and Bazzaz, 1998) . D. Energy Ecology Address all the required topics /subtopics . 1. Photosynthesis a. APUS oak is a primary producer . b. It obtains its energy via photosynthesis . c. Chloroplasts inside plant cell leaves conduct photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates , a form of stored energy . 2. APUS oak circulates nutrients via the conductive xylem and phloem. a. The xylem conducts water upwards from the roots. 3. The phloem uses turgor pressure to transport sugar molecules to plant tissues (Archer & Barber, 2004; Photosynthesis, 2018 ). E. Habitat 1. Abiotic a. The natural environment of the APUS oak is outdoors in temperate climates. b. Additional a biotic factors include : 1) W ell drained soils . 2) Sandy loam and n utrient rich. 3) Full -sun. 4) Stable, neutral pH. 2. Biotic a. Some common pest s of the APUS oak include defoliators, caterpillars and oak worms . b. Major leaf diseases are the result of fungi . 1) Oak Mildew can cause significant damage . 2) Occurs in high humidity conditions . 3) Generally, oak mildew is no t an issue in healthy oak trees (Imperial College, 2016). III. Conclusion s A. The APUS oak tree (Americanus quercus ) is commonly found in Charles Town, WV but can also be found across much of North American and into Canada. B. APUS oak is a hardwood tree that matures in 25 years, can grow 100 feet tall and live for hundreds of years. C. The leaves of the APUS oak tree are multi -lobed, attach alternate to branches and as primary producers, conduct photosynthesis. D. Acorns are produced in the late fall from mature APUS oak trees that flower between March to May that are primarily wind pollinated. E. The APUS oak tree leaves conduct photosynthesis which produces the trees energy. F. The APUS oak tree prefers a temperate climate, sandy loam, neutral pH and well – drained soil for optimal growth and health. G. The APUS oak tree is one of the largest trees, a hardwood and can live hundr eds of years which make it a unique organism. Ensure that all internal citation references are listed on the Reference page, and vice versa. Check your spelling, grammar, and punctuation. References 20 -20 Site. (2012). See It Clearly. Oak Tree. Retrieved from: http://www.2020site.org/trees/oak – tree.html Arbor Day Foundation. (2016). Oak Trees – There’s an Oak Tree Where You Live. The Oak Tree Family. Types of Oak Trees. Retrieved from: https://shop.arborday.org/content.aspx?page=tree -oak Archer, M., & Barber, J. (2004). Molecular to global photosynthesis . River Edge, NJ: Imperial College Press. Bassow, S.L., and Bazzaz, F.A. (1998). “How Environmental Conditions Affect Canopy Leaf – Level P hotosynthesis in Four Deciduous Tree Species.” Ecology 79.8 (1998): 2660 – 2675. Web. Common Trees of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Department of Con servation and Natural Resources Bureau of Forestry. Retrieved from : http://www.docs.dcnr.pa.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/document/dcnr_20029752.pdf Godman, R. M. and Mattson, G.A. (1980). Low Temperatures Optimum For Field Germination of Northern Red Oak. USDA. Tree Planters Notes. [pdf]. Retrieved from: https://rnfr.net Imperial College. (2016). Oak Pests and Disease. Oak Mildew. Retrieved from: https://www.opalexplorenature.org/oak -pests -diseases#/0 Use a minimum of five academically and scientifically credible references and list in APA format . Oak Flowers. (n.d.). Backyard Nature Home. Oak Flowers. Retrieved from: http://backyardnature.net/fl_bloak.htm Photosynthesis and Respiration. (2018). University of California . Retri eved from : http://fruitandnuteducation.ucdavis.edu/generaltopics/Tree_Growth_Structure/Photosynth esis_Respiration/ Pixabay . (2019). Acorn Oak Leaf, Image File. Retrieved from: https://pixabay.com/en/acorn – oak -tree -fruit -nature -3632517/
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