- I have attached 5 files use them to site and films also use them to sites.
- Answer all questions with at least two paragraphs.Write the best writing.
- Use minimum citations. When using the text provide a page and a film use the full name.
Question #2Chapter 8 focuses on the impact of capitalism on intercultural communication. Drawing on the chapter, films, and class lectures, discuss the following: In the context of globalization, capitalism is increasingly impacting countries from the Global South (nations that were once colonized). Discuss the likely impact of the culture of capitalism on these cultures and their cultural practices. I must see you cite the lectures, the text and the films.
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Question #3Race is a social constructs, but racism has real impact on people’s lives. Discuss how the discourses of biology, ideology, and cultural deficit (lecture on “Racialization”) have been used to produce racists policies, practices and shape individual decisions.
- At least one, Chapters 1, 2, 4 and 5
- Lectures “Discours” and “Racialization”
- Films, The Power of an Illusion Episode 1 and Racism a History I
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Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 1 Opening the Conversation: Studying Intercultural Communication Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview The first chapter, “Opening the Conversation,” invites readers to engage in a dynamic relationship with the content presented in the text and with the world around them. Students are encouraged to move from passive recipients to active participants in their learning process. The current context of globalization is a rapidly changing, deeply interdependent and increasingly inequitable world that requires skillful, informed and proactive intercultural communicators. To address the challenges and opportunities of intercultural communication today, three definitions of culture are introduced: 1.) the traditional anthropological definition where culture is viewed as shared meaning, 2.) the critical/cultural studies definition where culture is understood as a site of contested meaning, and 3.) the globalization definition where culture is seen as a resource that is bought, sold and capitalized upon for exploitation and empowerment. Each definition provides a different yet invaluable way of understanding culture in our complex age. Critical concepts such as positionality, standpoint theory, and ethnocentrism are introduced to understand how our worldviews, perceptions, attitudes and actions are influenced by relationship of power. To become more effective as intercultural communicators, thinkers, and actors in the global context, intercultural praxis—a set of skills and practices for critical, reflective thinking and acting—is outlined in this first chapter. The six interrelated points of entry in intercultural praxis are: Inquiry, Framing, Positioning, Dialogue, Reflection, and Action. The purpose of engaging in intercultural praxis is to raise awareness, increase critical analysis, and develop socially responsible action in regard to our intercultural interactions in the context of globalization. Chapter Objectives To invite and encourage students to move from passive recipients to active participants in becoming effective intercultural communicators. To introduce the challenges and opportunities of intercultural communication in the context of globalization. To provide three different definitions of culture, which are central for understanding intercultural communication in the global context. To understand how our social location and standpoint shape how we see, experience and understand the world differently. To introduce intercultural praxis—a process of critical reflection and action—to increase awareness, critical analysis and socially responsible action. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below High culture/Low culture Intercultural praxis Popular culture Inquiry Culture as shared meaning Framing Symbols Positioning Culture as contested meaning Dialogue Hegemony Reflection Culture as resource Action Cultural identity Positionality Standpoint theory Ethnocentrism Introduction Globalization is changing the ways we engage in intercultural communication. Our lives are increasingly interconnected through technology and the global economy. At the same time, the gap between the haves and have-nots is widening. The book positions the study and practice of intercultural communication within the context of political, economic, and cultural globalization with an emphasis on the role of history, power, and global institutions. This chapter introduces the key concepts in intercultural communication. Definitions of Culture Historically, the word culture was closely linked to processes of colonization. High culture: Culture of the elite class, or ruling class who have power. To have culture means to be civilized and developed. Low culture: Culture of the working class. Popular Culture: Culture that belongs to the “masses,” much of which was previously considered low culture. Anthropologic Definition: Culture as a Site of Shared Meaning Edward T. Hall is considered one of the originators of the field of intercultural communication. In the 1950s, Hall developed training programs on culture and communication for diplomats going abroad on assignment. Hall’s applied approach, focusing on the micro-level of human interaction, established the foundation for the field of intercultural communication. Clifford Geertz emphasized the role of symbols in understanding culture. According to Geertz, culture is a web of symbols that people use to create meaning and order in their lives. From an anthropological perspective, culture is a system of shared meanings. Passed from generation to generation through symbols to allow people to communicate, maintain, and develop an approach and understanding of life. Culture allows us to make sense of, express and give meaning to our lives. Example: Different cultures give varying interpretations to a man in his late 20s who lives with his parents and siblings. Cultural Studies Definition: Culture as a Site of Contested Meaning Culture as an apparatus of power within a larger system of domination. Informed by Marxist theories of class struggle and exploitation. Culture as a site of contestation where meanings are constantly negotiated. Cultural studies is a transdisciplinary field of study that emerged in the post-WWII era in England as a challenge to the positivist approaches to the study of culture. Cultural studies aims to develop subjective approaches to the study of culture in everyday life It examines the broader historical and political context within which cultural practices are situated, and to attend to relations of power in understanding culture. Hegemony Domination through consent as defined by Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Marxist theorist. Dominance without the need for force or explicit forms of coercion. Operates when the goals, ideas, and interests of the ruling group or class are so thoroughly normalized, institutionalized and accepted that people consent to their own domination, subordination and exploitation. From a cultural studies perspective, meanings are not necessarily shared, stable, or determined. Meanings are constantly produced, challenged, and negotiated. Example: Media representations of non-dominant groups in the United States are negotiated and contested. Culture is a site of contestation where the social norms are negotiated. A cultural studies approach offers tools to analyze power relations, to understand the historical and political context of our intercultural relations, and to see how we can act or intervene critically and creatively in our everyday lives. Globalization Definition: Culture as a Resource Culture as embodied difference Arjun Appadurai (1996) suggests that we need to move away from thinking of culture as a thing, a substance or an object that is shared. The concept of culture as a coherent, stable entity privileges certain forms of sharing and agreement, and neglects the realities of inequality, difference, and those who are marginalized. Culture is not something that individuals or groups possess but rather a way of referring to dimensions of situated and embodied difference that express and mobilize group identities. Culture as a resource George Yúdice (2003) suggests that culture in the age of globalization has come to be understood as a resource. Culture is conceptualized, experienced, exploited, and mobilized as a resource. Culture is utilized as a resource to address and solve social problems like illiteracy, addiction, crime, and conflict. Culture is also used discursively, socially, and politically as a resource for collective and individual empowerment, agency and resistance. Example: Symbolic goods such as TV shows, movies, music and tourism, are a resource for economic growth in global trade. Mass culture industries in the U.S. are the major contributor to the Gross National Product (GNP). Example: African American urban culture has been appropriated, exploited, commodified, and yet operates as a potentially oppositional force. Example: How tourism in many parts of the world utilizes the resource of culture to attract foreign capital for development. Example: The Zapatista movement in Chiapas, Mexico that emerged in resistance to the oppressive and disenfranchising policies and practices of the NAFTA. Example: The ways that black youth in the favelas, poverty-stricken areas of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, use their funk music as a means to challenge racial discrimination and as a platform for activism. Textbox: Communicative Dimensions: Culture and Communication The textbox discusses the relationship between culture and communication based on three different definitions of culture. Studying Intercultural Communication: Key Concepts Cultural Identity: Our situated sense of self that is shaped by our cultural experience and social location. In recent years, many students find it highly challenging to articulate what their culture is. For students who come from the dominant culture, the response is often “I don’t really have a culture.” For those students from non-dominant groups, responses that point to their ethnic, racial, or religious group identification come more readily and yet, their replies are often accompanied by some uneasiness. Typically, people whose culture differs from the dominant group have a stronger sense of their culture and develop a clearer awareness of their culture. These responses reflect various definitions of culture. Their responses are also shaped by their cultural identities. Positionality One’s social location or position within an intersecting web of socially constructed hierarchical categories (i.e. race, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, nationality and physical abilities). Positionality shapes different experiences, understanding, and knowledge of oneself and the world. Positionality is a relational concept. Shows how we are positioned in relation to others within these intersecting social categories. Shows how we are positioned in terms of power. The socially constructed categories of race, gender, class, sexuality, nationality, religion and ableness are hierarchical systems that often define and connote material and symbolic power. Standpoint Theory Standpoint: A place from which to view and make sense of the world around us. Our standpoint influences what we see and what we cannot, do not, or choose not to see. Feminist standpoint theory claims that the social groups to which we belong shape what we know and how we communicate. Based on the Marxist position that economically oppressed classes can access knowledge unavailable to the socially privileged and can generate distinctive accounts, particularly knowledge about social relations. G.W.F. Hegel suggested that while society in general may acknowledge the existence of slavery, the perception, experience, and knowledge of slavery is quite different for slaves as compared to masters. One’s position within social relations of power produces different standpoints from which to view, experience, act and construct knowledge about the world. People from oppressed or subordinated groups must understand both their own perspective and the perspective of those in power in order to survive. The standpoint of marginalized people or groups is unique and should be privileged as it allows for a fuller and more comprehensive view. Patricia Hill Collins’ (1986) notion of “outsiders within” points to the possibility of dual vision of marginalized people and groups. Standpoint theory offers a powerful lens through which to make sense of, address, and act upon issues and challenges in intercultural communication. It enables us to understand how: We may see, experience, and understand the world quite differently based on our different standpoints and positionalities. Knowledge about ourselves and others is situated and partial. Knowledge is always and inevitably connected to power. Oppositional standpoints can form challenging and contesting the status quo. Ethnocentrism The idea that one’s own group’s way of thinking, being, and acting in the world is superior to others. Derived from two Greek words, ethno, meaning group or nation, and, kentron, meaning center. Conceptualized by William Sumner (1906). Ethnocentrism leads to negative evaluations of others and can result in dehumanization, legitimization of prejudices, discrimination, conflict, and violence. Ethnocentrism has combined with power—material, institutional, and symbolic power—to justify colonization, imperialism, oppression, war, and ethnic cleaning. Can blind individuals, groups, and even nations to the benefits of broader points of view and perceptions. Often marked by an intensely inward-looking and often near-sighted view of the world. Negatively impacts intercultural communication on both interpersonal and global levels. Example: In a 2001 poll, 58 % of global opinion leaders considered U.S. policies to be a major cause of the September 11 attacks, compared to just 18 % of U.S. respondents. Ethnocentrism has no long-term benefits for effective or successful intercultural communication in the context of globalization. Textbox: Cultural Identity: Constructing Cultural Identity The textbox provides the definition of cultural identity Discusses how the notions of positionality, standpoint theory, and ethnocentrism are related to cultural identity and intercultural communication. Intercultural Praxis The purpose of engaging in intercultural praxis is: To raise our awareness. To increase our critical analysis. To develop our socially responsible action in regard to our intercultural interactions in the context of globalization. There are six points or ports of entry that direct us towards ways of thinking, reflecting and acting in relation to our intercultural experiences. Intercultural praxis allows us to attend to the complex, relational, interconnected and often ambiguous nature of our experiences. Inquiry Refers to a desire and willingness to know, to ask, to find out and to learn. Inquiry requires that we are willing to take risks, allow our own way of viewing and being in the world to be challenged and changed. Be willing to suspend judgments about others in order to see and interpret others and the world from different points of view. Framing The use of multiple frames of reference to understand intercultural communication. “Framing” indicates that our perspectives, our views on ourselves, others and the world around us are always and inevitably limited by frames. We see things through individual, cultural, national, and regional frames that necessarily include some things and exclude others. It is critical that we become aware of the frames of reference from which we view and experience the world. To be aware of both the local and global contexts that shape intercultural interactions. To zoom in and focus on the particular and very situated aspects of an interaction, event, or exchange. To zoom out to view the incident, event, or interaction from a broader frame. To be aware of our frames of reference. To develop our capacity to flexibly and consciously shift our perspectives between the particular dimensions and the broader, global dimensions. Positioning Refers to understanding how and where we are positioned in the world. Positioning allows us to acknowledge that we are positioned differently with both material and symbolic consequences. Our positionality may shift and change based on where you are and with whom you are communicating. To interrogate who can speak and who is silenced; whose language is spoken and whose language trivialized or denied; whose actions have the power to shape and impact others and whose actions are dismissed, unreported, and marginalized. To question whose knowledge is privileged, authorized and agreed upon as true and whose knowledge is deemed unworthy, “primitive,” or unnecessary. To examine the relationship between power and what we think of as “knowledge.” Our knowledge of the world is socially and historically constructed and produced in relation to power. Dialogue The word “dialogue” is derived from the Greek word “dialogos.” “Dia” means “through,” “between,” or “across.” “Logos” refers to “word” or “the meaning of the word” as well as “speech” or “thought.” Anthropologist Crapanzano (1990) suggests that “dialogue” necessarily entails both an oppositional as well as a transformative dimension. Given the differences in power and positionality in intercultural interactions, engagement in dialogue is necessarily a relationship of tension. Martin Buber suggests that dialogue is essential for building community and goes far beyond an exchange of messages. Dialogue requires a particular quality of communication that involves a connection among participants who are potentially changed by each other. I-Thou relationships, rather than I-It relationship. Regard for both self and other. Either/or thinking is challenged. The possibility of shared ground, new meaning and mutual understanding. Dialogue allows us to be cognizant of differences and invites us to stretch ourselves—to reach across—to imagine, experience, and creatively engage with others. Reflection Reflection is the capacity to learn from introspection, to observe oneself in relation to others. To alter one’s perspectives and actions based on reflection is a capacity shared by all humans. Many cultures place a high value on doing activities and accomplishing tasks, which often leaves little space and time for reflection. Reflection is central to the process of inquiry, framing, positioning, and dialogue. Paulo Freire (1998) notes that critical praxis “involves a dynamic and dialectic movement between ‘doing’ and ‘reflecting on doing’” (p. 43). Reflection informs our actions. Reflection enables us to act in the world in meaningful, effective, and responsible ways. Action The concept of intercultural praxis refers to an on-going process of thinking, reflecting and acting. Intercultural praxis emphasizes responsible action to create a more socially just, equitable and peaceful world. To be aware of what informs ours choices and actions. To think about the implications of our actions. To think about how our choices and actions are interrelated in the context of globalization and relations of power. Intercultural praxis offers us a process of critical, reflective thinking and acting that enables us to navigate the complex and challenging intercultural spaces we inhabit interpersonally, communally, and globally. Summary Definitions of culture Culture as shared meaning Culture as contested meaning Culture as resource Key concepts Positionality Standpoint theory Ethnocentrism Intercultural praxis: a set of skills, processes and practices for critical, reflective thinking and acting. Inquiry Framing Positioning Dialogue Reflection Action
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Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 2 Understanding the Context of Globalization Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview This chapter situates everyday intercultural interactions within the broader macro context of globalization. The central role history plays in defining and shaping interactions among cultural groups today is highlighted. A brief review of world migration since the colonial period underscores how our current context of globalization is inextricably intertwined with the past. The chapter also introduces the importance of relationships of power for understanding intercultural communication. The chapter begins with a set of scenarios that illustrate the complexity of intercultural communication in the context of globalization. The face-paced, rapidly changing, interconnected and inequitable context of globalization has a tremendous impact on intercultural communication today. Globalization is defined as the complex web of forces and factors that have brought people, cultures, cultural products, and markets, as well as beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to and interrelationship with one another within inequitable relations of power. Particularly salient forces that propel globalization include advances in communication and transportation technologies as well as changes in economic and political policies in the past thirty years. The resulting global web of interdependence leads to shared interests, needs, and resources as well as greater intercultural misunderstanding, tension, and conflict. Intensified interaction and magnified inequities among people from diverse cultures couple with historic legacies of colonization, Western domination and U.S. hegemony to shape intercultural relations today. Three facets of globalization—economic, political and cultural globalization—are examined with a focus on the intercultural communication dimensions of each. The role of global governance, “alter-globalization” movements, democratizing processes and ideological wars as well as cultural imperialism and cultural hybridity are addressed. These global dynamics shape our identities, influence who we interact with, frame our attitudes about and experiences of each other, and structure our intercultural interaction in relationships of power. Chapter Objectives To understand the complex and contradictory influences of globalization on intercultural communication. To introduce the important role history plays in shaping intercultural communication today. To introduce the ways relationships of power impact intercultural communication in our everyday lives. To examine the intercultural dimensions of economic, political and cultural globalization. Key Terms *Indicated below in bold and italicized letters. Globalization World Trade Organization (WTO) Historical legacy of colonization International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1st, 2nd and 3rd World World Bank (WB) Developing /Developed countries Ideology Global south/Global north Democratization Economic globalization Culture as de-territorialized Political globalization Culture as re-territorialization Cultural globalization Remittances Maquiladora Diasporic communities Economic liberalization/Free Trade Cultural imperialism Free Trade Agreements Hybrid cultural forms NAFTA Introduction Five scenarios of globalization All scenarios illustrate the dynamic movement, confluence, and interconnection of peoples, cultures, markets and relationships of power that are rooted in history and are redefined and re-articulated in our current global age. This chapter introduces: The central roles history and power play in intercultural communication The broader context of globalization within which intercultural communication occurs today: economic, political and cultural globalization. The Role of History in Intercultural Communication European expansion and colonization The European conquest starting in the 16th century transformed global migration patterns in ways that continue to impact us today. People moved from Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia for the purpose of conquest, economic expansion and religious conversion. Transatlantic Slave Trade Between the 1600s and the 1850s, 9-12 million people were forcibly removed from Africa and transported to the colonies—primarily in the Americas—to serve as enslaved laborers. In the 19th century, Indians subjected to colonial British rule were relocated as laborers and indentured servants to British colonies in Africa and Oceania. The process of colonization established Europe as the economic and political center of the world and the colonies as the periphery. Post-independence Americas In the 19th century, a mass migration to the Americas occurred with the expulsion of working class and poor people from the centers of Europe. Movements of indentured laborers from Asia (i.e. China, Japan, and the Philippines) to European colonies and former colonies—mainly the U.S. and Canada—swelled the number of migrants to over 40 million during the twenty-five years before WWI. World Wars WWI brought the unprecedented closure of national borders. The implementation of the first systematic immigration legislation and border controls in modern times. The ethnically motivated violence of WWII led to the movement of Jews out of Europe to Israel, the U.S. and Latin America. After WWII, the first institutions of global political and economic governance, the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, were established. 1960s-1970s A shift in migratory patterns with the rebuilding of European economic power and the rise of the U.S. as an economic and political center. People from the former colonies or peripheries migrated towards the centers of former colonial power. From Turkey and North Africa to Germany and France respectively. From former colonies in Southeast Asia, and East and West Africa to England, France, Germany, Italy and the Scandinavian countries. From Latin America and Asia to the U.S. From Africa and Asia to the Middle East. In the later part of the 20st century, the number of people seeking asylum, refugees in Africa, the Middle East and Latin America has risen exponentially. Movements of people and intercultural interactions are directly related to economic and political forces. The networks of connection and global relationships of power are a continuation of world-wide intercultural contact and interaction over the past five hundred years. We must understand ICC within a broad historical context. The colonial process initiated the division between “the West and the Rest” that we experience today. Colonization and the global expansion of the West propelled the development of capitalism, leading to the expansion of markets, trade, and the incorporation of labor from the former colonies or developing countries. First, Second, and Third World Used during the Cold War to describe the relationship between the U.S. and other countries. The 1st world: countries friendly to the U.S. and were identified as capitalist and democratic. The 2nd world: countries perceived as hostile and ideologically incompatible with the U.S. (i.e. the former Soviet bloc countries, China and their allies) and were identified as communist. The 3rd world: countries that were seen as neutral or non-aligned with either the 1st world (capitalism) or the 2nd world (communism). Since the end of the Cold War, the meaning of 1st and 3rd worlds is less clearly defined and more closely associated with levels of economic development. Developing and developed country, more commonly used today, are based on a nation’s wealth (Gross National Product), political and economic stability and other factors. The terms global south and global north highlight the socio-economic and political division between wealthy, developed nations (former centers of colonial power) in the northern hemisphere and poorer, developing nations (formerly colonized countries) in the southern hemisphere. The Role of Power in Intercultural Communication Consider how global movements of people, products, cultural forms and cultural representations are shaped and controlled by relationships of power. Who controls the media? Who are in charge of global institutions? Access, availability, and visibility of different cultures reflect power relations among cultures. Introductory scenarios in this chapter illustrate inequitable positions of power that shape intercultural interactions. Example: Amitabh Bachchan, an international star from Bollywood, is largely unknown in the U.S. Example: The U.S. corporate media treat WTO protests in Seattle in 1999 as the first major challenge to global capitalism and gloss over other grassroots resistance around the world. Textbox: Intercultural Praxis: Communication and Power The textbox provides a conceptualization of power as an integral part of intercultural communication. Discussion on how to utilize intercultural praxis to analyze, critique, and transform relations of power in intercultural communication. Intercultural Communication in the Context of Globalization Intercultural communication in the context of globalization is characterized by: An increasingly dynamic, mobile world facilitated by communication and transportation technologies, accompanied by an intensification of interaction and exchange among people, cultures, and cultural forms across geographic, cultural, and national boundaries A rapidly growing global interdependence socially, economically, politically and environmentally, which leads both to shared interests, needs, and resources and greater tensions, contestations, and conflicts. A magnification of inequities based on flows of capital, labor, and access to education and technology, as well as the increasing power of multinational corporations and global financial institutions An historical legacy of colonization, Western domination, and U.S. hegemony that continue to shape intercultural relations today Intercultural communication is central in our current age. Our assumptions and attitudes based on differences in physical appearance condition our responses and shape who we communicate with, build friendships and alliances with. The increased exposure today through interpersonal and mediated communication to people who differ from ourselves deeply impacts how we make sense of, constitute and negotiate our own identities as well as the identities of others. Histories of conflict among groups, structural inequities and ideological differences frequently frame and inform our intercultural interactions. Globalization Refers to the complex web of forces and factors that have brought people, cultures, cultural products, and markets, as well as beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to and interrelationship with one another within inequitable relations of power. Used to address both the processes that contribute to and the conditions of living in a world shaped by: Advances in technology that has brought the world’s people spatially and temporally closer together. Economic and political forces of advanced capitalism and neoliberalism that have increased flows of products, services, and labor across national boundaries. Cultural, economic, and political ideologies that “travel” through public campaigns, the mass media, consumer products, and through global institutions. Intercultural Dimensions of Economic Globalization Global Business and Global Markets Economic globalization Characterized by a growth in multinational corporations. An intensification of international trade and international flows of capital. Internationally interconnected webs of production, distribution, and consumption. Economic globalization has magnified the need for intercultural awareness, understanding, and training at all levels of business. Geert Hofstede studied differences in national cultures and their impact on workplace culture. Five dimensions of national cultural difference, which include Power distance Individualism-collectivism Uncertainty avoidance Masculinity-femininity Long/short term orientation Cultural differences in values, norms and behaviors play a significant role in team-building, decision-making, job satisfaction, marketing and advertising. Example: The popular Pepsi slogan: “Pepsi Brings You Back to Life.” The slogan, translated into Chinese reads, “Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back from the Grave.” Or the Coors beer slogan, “Turn it loose,” when translated into Spanish, told the consumer to “Suffer from diarrhea.” Example: “Konglish” in corporate slogans damages the image of Korean companies. Free Trade and Economic Liberalization Economic liberalization; also known as trade liberalization, or free trade. Economic policies that increase the global movement of goods, labor, services and capital with less restrictive tariffs (taxes) and trade barriers. The movement of goods, labor, services and capital is increasingly unrestricted by tariffs (taxes) and trade barriers. Developed nations or 1st World nations used protectionist policies (taxation of foreign made products and service) until they accumulated enough wealth to benefit from free trade. Until the last 30 to 40 years, the U.S. opposed “free trade” policies in an effort to protect U.S. jobs, products, and services. Free Trade Agreements liberalize trade by reducing trade tariffs and barriers transnationally. Moving manufacturing sectors and service sectors to off-shore locations with cheaper labor and less business and environmental regulations. NAFTA (The North American Free Trade Agreement) by Canada, Mexico and the U.S. was signed in January 1994 to support the free movement of goods, services, and capital without trade or tariff barriers The implications of its policies remain highly controversial and contested. It is important to be aware of the broader economic context that propels and shapes intercultural interactions today. It is critical to underscore how different actors on the global stage experience and make meaning about economic globalization in vastly different ways. Global Financial Institutions and Popular Resistance World Trade Organization (WTO) In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed as a successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). WTO supervises and liberalizes international trade. GATT (now the WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) were set up immediately following WWII to maintain global economic stability and to address poverty through development. Economic globalization has resulted in: Increased business transactions. Economic interdependence. A need for intercultural communication skills in business and workplace. An increased economic disparities between the wealthy and the poor not only globally but within the U.S. Textbox: Communicative Dimensions: Communication and Globalization The textbox addresses the relationship between three types of globalization (cultural, economic, and political) and communication. The focus on the central role and impact of communication in globalization. Intercultural Dimensions of Political Globalization Democratization and Militarism Democratization refers to the transition from an authoritarian to a democratic political system that ensures the universal right to vote. Francis Fukuyama (1992) argues that Western liberal democracy has been universalized and human history has reached the end of ideological evolution. Amy Chua (2003) shows that economic globalization and the rapid expansion of free market democracy has lead to an increase in inter-ethnic conflict worldwide. Ideological Wars Ideology: A set of ideas and beliefs reflecting the needs and aspirations of individuals, groups, classes or cultures, which form the basis for political, economic and other systems. International conflicts are caused by, or framed as, the clash of ideologies. Example: 9/11 attacks, “war on terror,” and the histories of U.S. intervention in the Middle east. Example: Multiculturalism in the U.K. and the crisis of unified national identity. Globalization is shaped by the tension between contradictory ideologies of inclusion and exclusion. Ideological wars: impact intercultural communication. employ false dichotomies to galvanize the public. often scapegoats one group for the challenges and ills of a society. Global Governance and Social Movements Questions of governance on global, national, state and local levels are closely linked to intercultural communication. It is important to address the question of who gets to govern whom, what kind of decisions are made, and how. Developed nations control the decision-making process for IMF and World Bank. Individuals and groups have also come together to organize movements against the domination of global financial and political institutions. Global governance is shaped by contradictory forces of democratization, Western dominance, and grassroots resistance. Intercultural Dimensions of Cultural Globalization Migration and Cultural Connectivities We live in “a world in motion” where people and cultures move across places (Inda & Rosaldo, 2001, p. 11) Culture as de-territorialized: Culture in the context of globalization where cultural subjects and cultural objects are uprooted from their situatedness in a particular physical, geographic location. Culture as re-territorialized: Culture in the context of globalization where cultural subjects and cultural objects are relocated in new, multiple and varied geographic spaces. The way people connect with their culture and cultivate a sense of home is changing due to: Communication technology Frequent trips home International economic and social networks Remittances or financial support sent to a distant location Diasporic communities: Groups of people who have been forced to leave their homeland and who maintain a longing for—even if only in their imagination—a return to “home.” Example: the expulsion and dispersion of the Jews during the Babylonian Exile in 700 BCE. Example: the African diaspora that forcibly uprooted and transplanted Africans to the Americas and the Caribbean during the period of British colonization. Example: the Armenian diaspora in the early part of the 20th century that resulted from the genocide of approximately 1.5 million Armenian. Globalization enables a sense of community beyond and across national borders. Cultural Flows and Unequal Power Relations Cultural imperialism: The domination of one culture over others through cultural forms such as popular culture, media, and cultural products. Cultural imperialism is shaped by unequal power relations and cultural flows. Example: Starbucks has 16,000 coffeehouses in 50 countries outside North America. McDonald’s spread around the world. Coca Cola is ubiquitous in even the most remote areas. Mickey Mouse the most internationally recognized figure. Unequal and asymmetrical flows of culture have various implications for local and national culture. Americanization: Global cultural homogenization by U.S. American culture, such as McDonald’s and Disney. Local industries are affected by the dominance of U.S. corporations and products. Local traditions and national cultures are altered or lost due to the presence of American culture. Example: In France, people try to resist U.S. fast-food industry. Example: In China, marketing targeted at children by McDonald’s and Disney disrupts cultural norms of parental authority, where children are informed through mass advertising that they can make choices about what they want independent of their parents. Example: In India, production and consumption of Barbie dressed in a sari (traditional Indian dress) advances notions of universal female subjectivity that is essentially bound to White American norms and values and yet is “veiled” in Indian attire. John Tomlinson (1999) argues that cultural imperialism in the context of globalization is a continuation of earlier forms of imperialism during the 16th-19th centuries. Cultural imperialism is a site where the forces of cultural homogenization and resistance coexist. Hybrid Cultural Forms and Identities Hybrid cultural forms: A new and distinct cultural form created by a mix of different cultures and appropriation of other cultural forms based on local knowledge and practice. This notion describes how U.S. and Western cultural forms get modified and appropriated for the local audience. Cultural products travel across national borders, and are interpreted and used differently by different groups of people. Global cultural flows are shaped by the relations of power; at the same time, the level of influence and adaptation is different across places. Example: Reggaeton, a blend of rap and reggae with Latin influence and origins, which soared into popularity in the mid-2000s. Radha Hegde (2002) defines the creation of hybrid cultures and hybrid cultural forms as a type of resistance that non-dominant groups employ out of fear of total assimilation and as a means of cultural maintenance in the midst of powerful dominant cultural forces. Summary The role of history in ICC The role of power in ICC Definition of globalization Political globalization Economic globalization Cultural globalization
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Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 4 (Dis) Placing Culture and Cultural Space: Locations of Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview Expanding on Chapter 3, this chapter shifts our attention outward from the body to explore and “read” the cultural and intercultural communication dimensions of place, space and location. Cultures are simultaneously placed and displaced, inevitably located in specific places and yet, dislocated from their sites of origin in the context of globalization. The confluence of forces that shape the terrain of globalization has dramatically accelerated the displacement and re-placement of people, cultures and cultural spaces since the early 1990s. Given this displacement and fragmentation of cultures, we investigate how human beings use communicative practices to construct, maintain, negotiate, reconstruct and hybridize cultural spaces. Understanding globalization as a legacy of colonization allows us to recognize how cultural spaces experienced today—segregated, contested and hybrid cultural spaces—sustain historically forged relations of unequal power. The concept of glocalization is introduced to focus attention on how specific places are impacted by globalizing and localizing forces. The notion of bifocal vision or the ability to attend to the linkages between “here” and “there” as well as the connections between the present and past is offered to understand the complex, layered and contested dimensions of places, cultural spaces and locations today. Building on the case study introduced in the previous chapter, hip hop culture is used to illustrate the cultural and intercultural dimensions of place, space, and location in the context of globalization. With the globalization of hip hop culture, paradoxical forces emerge shaping intercultural communication. While hip hop culture (culture as a resource) can enable economic mobility and a vehicle of communication for marginalized voices, its counter-hegemonic messages of resistance and struggle are often defused through processes of commodification. Chapter Objectives To understand the relationships among culture, place, cultural space, and identity in the context of globalization. To understand how people use communicative practices to construct, maintain, negotiate, and hybridize cultural spaces To explore how cultures are simultaneously placed and displaced in the global context leading to segregated, contested and hybrid cultural spaces. To introduce the notion of bifocal vision to highlight the linkages between “here” and “there” as well as the connections between present and past. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below Cultural space Location of enunciation (Dis) placed cultural spaces De-industrialization Time-space compression Polysemic “In-hereness AND out-thereness” Appropriation Glocalization Segregated cultural space Avowed identity Contested cultural space Ascribed identity Hybrid cultural space Hybrid cultural space as site of intercultural negotiation Hybrid cultural space as site of resistance Hybrid cultural space as site of transformation Introduction We now move outward from the body (chapter 3) to explore and “read” the cultural and intercultural communication dimensions of place, space and location. In this chapter, we examine the dynamic process of placing and displacing cultural space in the context of globalization. We investigate how human beings use communicative practices to construct, maintain, negotiate, reconstruct and hybridize cultural spaces. We look at how segregated, contested, and hybrid cultural spaces are both shaped by the legacy of colonialism and in the context of globalization. Hip hop culture is used to illustrate the cultural and intercultural dimensions of place, space, and location in the context of globalization. Textbox: Communicative Practices: Space and Cultural Differences The textbox provides a narrative example of cultural differences in how people use and interact with private space. A South Korean international student visits her professor’s house and is given a house tour. She is confused about how American people show the entire house to their guests. Placing Culture and Cultural Space Historically, notions of culture have been closely bound to place, geographic location, and the creation of collective and shared cultural spaces. The traditional anthropological definition of culture implies culture as grounded and bounded in place. A reciprocal relationship exists between culture and place. In the context of globalization, culture and cultural spaces have been de-territorialized, removed from their original locations and re-territorialized or re-situated in new locations. Cultural Space Cultural space: The communicative practices that construct meanings in, through and about particular places. Cultural space shapes verbal and nonverbal communicative practices. i.e. Classrooms, club, library. Cultural spaces are constructed through the communicative practices developed and lived by people in particular places. Communicative practices include: The languages, accents, slang, dress, artifacts, architectural design, the behaviors and patterns of interaction, the stories, the discourses and histories. Places and the cultural spaces that are constructed in particular locations also give rise to collective and individual identities. Place, Cultural Space and Identity Stereotypes, assumptions, and judgments are associated with cities, towns, and neighborhoods. People use cultural space to create avowed and ascribed identities. Avowed Identity: The way we see, label and make meaning about ourselves. Ascribed Identity: The way others may view, name and describe us and our group. Geographical locations intersect with social locations (i.e. race, class, gender) to create locations of enunciation. Locations of enunciation: Sites or positions from which to speak. A platform from which to voice a perspective and be heard and/or silenced. Questions to consider: How are differences in terms of race and class mapped onto geographic locations? How do these mappings shape locations of enunciation? How are cultural spaces gendered and how does gender impact locations of enunciation? Textbox: Cultural Identity: Views on “Home” and Identity The textbox provides contrasting narratives of two young women who negotiate their identities and senses of home across places. As a Japanese American woman, Monica struggles with how people perceive her as a foreigner. As a Japanese woman, Sayaka struggles with how American people reduce her into a representative of all things Japanese. Displacing Culture and Cultural Space In the context of globalization, culture travels across places and are re-placed in new environments. (Dis) placed culture and cultural space: A notion that captures the complex, contradictory and contested nature of cultural space and the relationship between culture and place that has emerged in the context of globalization. Time-space Compression: A characteristic of globalization that brings seemingly disparate cultures into closer proximity, intersection and juxtaposition with each other (Havey, 1990). Glocalization: “In here-ness” AND “Out there-ness” “In-hereness AND out-thereness”: A characteristic of globalization in which a particular “here” is linked to “there,” and how this linkage of places reveals colonial histories and postcolonial realities. We need to investigate how this particular “here” is linked to “there” and how this linkage of places reveals colonial histories and postcolonial realities. Glocalization: The dual and simultaneous forces of globalization and localization. First introduced in 1980s to describe Japanese business practices Later popularized by sociologist Roland Robertson (1991). The concept allows us to think about how globalizing forces always operate in relationship to localizing forces. In order to understand the intercultural dynamics occurring in cultural spaces around us, we need to examine the histories of interaction that literally and figuratively shape and construct meanings about the ground upon which we stand today. Example: Los Angeles has a mixture of ethnic communities today. The land was first occupied by indigenous American Indians, which was invaded by the Spanish, inhabited by Mexicans, and taken over by White Americans and other racial groups. “We are here because you were there.” Case Study: Hip Hop Culture South Bronx Hip Hop culture emerged out of the harsh, burned-out, poverty-stricken, gang dominated urban spaces of the South Bronx. Black and Puerto Rican youth took what was available to them—their bodies, their cultural forms of expression and their innovation—to reclaim their “place.” Through creative forms of cultural expression with deep ancestral ties such as breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music, the South Bronx was transformed into a site of pleasure and protest. The youth of the South Bronx used the streets, parks, subways, abandoned buildings, and trains as locations for creating, writing and voicing their own “texts” about their struggles. De-industrialization: A process of economic globalization in which manufacturing jobs are lost to cheaper and less regulated labor conditions outside of the U.S. New York City was affected by de-industrialization in the 1970s, causing joblessness, slum landlords, economic divestment and de-population. Out of these conditions, hip hop culture rose as a vibrant, expressive, and oppositional urban youth culture. Back in the Day From the beginning, the communicative practices of hip hop culture developed in relationship to particular places, an identification with and defense of territory and an awareness of socio-political locations. Examples: “Tagging”—the marking of either your own territory to signify authority and dominance or the marking of others’ territory to provoke—morphed into graffiti “writing,” where individual and group “writers” used the city as their canvas. Going Commercial As hip hop commercialized and “went national” in the late 1980, the regional place-based split between the East and West Coasts gained prominence. The rise of hip hop culture on the West Coast was “an attempt to figure Los Angeles on the map of hip hop” in a direct communicative “reply to the construction of the South Bronx/Queensbridge nexus in New York” (Cross, 1992, p. 37). The commercial success of rap has led to artist-owned businesses and independent labels providing employment and economic viability for many African Americans. Hip hop is a highly contested cultural space. Mainstream middle and upper class Whites and Blacks decry the corrosive moral effects of hip hop culture. The vibrant lyrics of rap and the locations of enunciation pictured and voiced in music videos capture the attention of youth across the U.S. and the globe. Fascinated and lured by narratives of rebellion, oppositional identities and locations on the margin, youth of all ethnic racial backgrounds and particularly White Americans are the primary consumers. Global Hip Hop Culture Today, hip hop cultural spaces are materializing around the globe. In urban, suburban and rural settings in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia, hip hop culture has been de-territorialized from the urban centers of the U.S. and re-territorialized in new locations creating hybrid cultural spaces that illustrate processes of glocalization. While the communicative practices of hip hop cultures around the world are clearly linked to the African diasporic colonial experience, they also re-work the qualities of flow, layering and rupture in their place-based specificity as global forces converge with local forces. Example: Hip hop culture and styles developed in France and Italy provide spaces to address local issues of racism and concerns over police brutality. In Sweden, the hip hop scene among ethnic minorities focuses on constructing a collective oppositional identity to resist the White skin-head youth culture. For Maoris in New Zealand, rap music groups speak out for the rights of indigenous groups around the world. Hip hop in Japan is often used as a means of identity distinction by youth who want to mark themselves as different from the mainstream culture. Appropriation: “Borrowing,” “mishandling,” and/or “stealing.” It raises questions about authenticity, ownership and relations of power. Is hip hop essentially a Black thing? Is appropriation of hip hop culture by other cultures problematic? “Black” culture becomes global culture as hip hop is de-territorialized and re-territorialized around the globe and the music and styles mesh with and call forth local responses. Hip hop culture has paradoxical forces in shaping intercultural communication. It enables economic mobility and provides a platform for speaking. It also promotes stereotypes about communities of color and valorizes danger, violence, misogyny and homophobia. It provides communication vehicles for the marginalized. It also promotes commodification of culture and benefits those who control the music industries, primarily White Americans. Cultural Space, Power and Communication Throughout history and today, space has been used to establish, exert and maintain power and control. Power is signified, constructed and regulated through size, shape, access, containment and segregation of space. The use of space communicates. Example: In the Middle Ages in Europe, churches were the tallest buildings and occupied central locations in cities signifying the importance of religious authority. Example: In the Ottoman Empire, no building was built higher than the minarets of mosques. Example: European colonizers erected churches on top of local religious sites from the Americas to India and Africa to materially and symbolically impose colonial rule. Today, the signs of power in metropolises around the world are the financial buildings—the towering, glitzy, eye-catching economic centers of transnational capitalism. Edward T. Hall (1966) elaborated in his book The Hidden Dimension, the way cultures use space communicates. Segregated Cultural Space Segregated space based on socio-economic, racial, ethnic, sexual, political and religious differences, both voluntary and imposed. Minority cultural groups may choose to live in communities in close proximity as a way to reinforce and maintain cultural spaces and to buffer themselves from real or perceived hostile forces around them. These cultural spaces often provide and reinforce a sense of belonging, identification and empowerment. Yet, many historical and contemporary examples illustrate how spatial segregation has been imposed and is used to establish and maintain the hegemony of the dominant group and to restrict and control access of non-dominant groups to power and resources. Example” The word “ghetto,” used primarily today to refer to ethnic or racial neighborhoods of urban poverty, originally referred to an area in Venice, Italy where Jews were segregated and required to live in the 1500s. Example: The reservation system imposed on Native Americans, the Jim Crow laws (1865-1960s) that segregated Blacks and the isolation of Japanese Americans during WWII are examples of forced segregation that maintained the hegemony of European Americans and limited access for non-dominant groups in the U.S. Example: Sundown towns or “whites only” towns, named for their threats of violence aimed at Blacks after the sun sets, are places that have deliberately excluded Blacks for decades and which, today, increasingly exclude Latinos. Example: Schools today are re-segregated to the same level as in 1970s according to a clear racial and class line. Example: In Hurricane Katrina, while all people living in New Orleans and the Gulf area were impacted by the natural disaster, low-income, working class neighborhoods were hit the hardest. Segregation of cultural spaces structure and reinforce different power positions within socio-economic, political and cultural hierarchies. Segregation, whether it is class, race, gender-based or an intersection of all three is a powerful means to control, limit and contain non-dominant groups. Contested Cultural Space Geographic locations where conflicts engage people with unequal control and access to resources in oppositional and confrontational strategies of resistance. Example: Chinese immigrants who came to the U.S. to work from the 1850s onward were forced to live in isolated ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns in large cities such as San Francisco and New York. This is where the stereotypical image of Chinese restaurants and laundry shops, Japanese gardeners and produce stands, and Korean grocery stores began. These (occupations) did not begin out of any natural or instinctual desire on the part of Asian workers, but as a response to prejudice, exclusion, and institutional discrimination— a situation that still continues in many respects today. Example: After the devastating 1906 earthquake and fires in San Francisco, White city leaders and landlords wanted to re-locate Chinatown to the outskirts of town claiming that it was an “eyesore and health hazard. A political battle ensued with the Chinese community leaders strongly protesting the forced displacement. Finally, they were able to convince the White civic leaders that Chinatown could be re-built in a “traditional Oriental” style to attract tourists and contribute to the city’s revenue and appeal. Polysemic: A condition in which multiple meanings are constructed about certain place, people and phenomena. Chinatown is a polysemic space with multiple meanings. Chinatown was originally a place of ethnic exclusion, a home to Asian immigrants, and then it became cultural resource, and a tourist attraction and commodity. Example: In the early 2000s, in Hudson, New York, a small town of 7,000 just 100 miles north of New York City, residents joined together in what has been described as a lopsided power battle between David and Goliath. The largest cement company in the world, Swiss-owned Holderbank, planned to build a massive, coal-fired cement manufacturing factory nearby Hudson on the banks of the river. Competing concerns and interests—the lure of job opportunities, detrimental environmental effects and political affiliations—divided residents across lines of race, gender and sexual orientation. “Spaces are contested precisely because they concretize the fundamental and recurring, but otherwise unexamined, ideological and social frameworks that structure practice” (Low & Lawrence-Zúñiga, 2003, p. 18). Contested cultural spaces like hip hop culture expose how socially constructed ideological frameworks such as race, class and gender function to divide, segregate and exclude. Hybrid Cultural Spaces The intersection of intercultural communication practices that construct meanings in, through and about particular places within a context of relations of power. The following three examples of hybrid cultural spaces help us understand the power dynamics that structure the terms and conditions of mixing in hybrid cultural spaces. Example: Imagine you are sitting in a McDonald’s in Moscow, Russia. You might expect to find a situation similar to what you experience here in the U.S.—a fast, inexpensive, (fat) filling meal in a familiar and standardized space (each one is pretty much like the next one) where you either sit down, eat your meal and leave or take the drive-through option. You might assume you will have an experience of “American” culture in Russia. Yet, when Shannon Peters Talbot (as cited in Nederveen Pieterse, 2004, p. 50) conducted an ethnographic study of McDonald’s in Moscow, Russia, she found something quite different. Moscowites came to McDonald’s to enjoy the atmosphere often hanging out for more than an hour. They pay more than one third of the average Russian daily wage for a meal and are drawn to this cultural space for its uniqueness and difference. Instead of “one size fits all” management practices that are generally applied in the U.S., McDonald’s in Moscow offers a variety of incentive options for employees The proliferation of multinational entities around the globe suggests a corporatization and homogenization of cultural spaces. This McDonaldization of the world (think 16,000 Starbucks in 50 countries, 8,500 Wal-Mart stores in 15 countries outside the U.S., 31,000 McDonald’s in 119 countries, etc.) is the result of unequal power relations, which manifests in an asymmetrical global flow of cultural products. Undoubtedly, this is an example of cultural imperialism or the domination of one culture over others through cultural forms such as pop culture, media, and cultural products. Without erasing the asymmetrical power relations and the dominance of U.S and Western cultural forms, it is important to note the hybrid nature of the cultural space—the mixing of cultural influences, the altered way the space is used, and the new meanings that are produced about the space—in this re-territorialized McDonald’s Hybrid cultural space as site of intercultural negotiation Hybrid cultural spaces as innovative and creative spaces where people constantly adapt to, negotiate with and improvise between multiple cultural frameworks. Communication scholar Radha Hegde (2002) describes the hybrid cultural space in an Asian Indian immigrant home. Multiple cultural practices—food, music, scent, sports, and languages—shape the cultural space of immigrants. Hegde argues that the hybrid cultural space described above is constructed by Asian Indian immigrants as a response to what Salome Rushdie (1991) calls the triple dislocation: a disruption of historical roots, language and social conventions. This triple dislocation penetrates to the very core of migrants’ experiences of identity, social connections and culture. The construction of hybrid cultural spaces, then, is an active and creative effort to maintain and sustain one’s culture in the context of global displacement and re-placement. Hybrid cultural space as site of resistance Hybrid cultural spaces where people challenge stable, territorial, and static definitions of culture, cultural spaces and cultural identities. Constructed in the context of differential power relations, hybrid cultural spaces are forms of resistance to full assimilation into the dominant culture. Hybrid cultural spaces are both highly innovative, improvisational and creative and “also cultures that develop and survive as a form of collective resistance” (Hegde, 2002, p. 261). Hybridity—hybrid cultures, spaces and identities—challenge stable, territorial, and static definitions of culture, cultural spaces and cultural identities. Example: Chicana feminist scholar Gloria Anzaldúa (1987) describes the fluid, contradictory and creative experience of living in the hybrid cultural space she calls the “Borderlands/borderlands.” Amidst the pain, hardship and alienation, Anzaldúa expresses “exhilaration” at living in, speaking from, and continually constructing hybrid cultural spaces—the Borderlands. In the on-going confrontation with and negotiation of “hegemonic structures that constantly ‘marginalize’ the mixtures they create” (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 146), Anzaldúa experiences and constructs a location of enunciation, a position, and a cultural space (both a literal and figurative space) from which to speak and claim an oppositional identity. Nederveen Pieterse (2004) states “…it’s important to note the ways in which hegemony is not merely reproduced but reconfigured in the process of hybridization (p. 74). Hybrid cultural spaces as sites of transformation Hybrid cultural spaces where hegemonic structures are negotiated and reconfigured through hybridization of culture, cultural space, and identity. We have explored segregated, contested and hybrid cultural space through historical and contemporary examples. The discussion of cultural spaces and the excavation of underlying power dynamics here provide a foundation for investigating the intercultural dynamics of border crossing, identity construction, and relationship building in later chapters. Summary Placing Culture and Cultural Space Place, Cultural Space, and Identity Displacing Culture and Cultural Space Case Study: Hip Hop culture Segregated, Contested, and Hybrid cultural space
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Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 5 Crossing Borders: Migration and Intercultural Adaptation Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview As the forces of globalization converge, unprecedented numbers of people have been displaced, dramatically impacting those who are uprooted, those who remain and those in places where people resettle. Advances in communication and transportation technologies have created the conditions for migration networks to form that enable transmigrants to maintain, hybridize and change the “host” cultures and “home” cultures. This chapter begins with a brief discussion of different types of migrants from voluntary and involuntary migrants to postcolonial and transmigrants. The purpose of identifying different types of migrants is to highlight the particular conditions that shape the experiences of migrants. An overview of the three major waves of world migration provides a context for understanding contemporary patterns of migrant mobility, settlement and the emergence of transnational migrant networks. World migration from the first wave to the current wave has been integral to the growth of capitalism. Migrants—on a continuum from voluntary and involuntary—have fueled and resuscitated 1st World economies from the colonial to the industrial and into the post-industrial wave of migration. Viewing migration through a capitalist-labor lens highlights the varying degrees of exclusion and inclusion migrants experience in “host” countries, which significantly affects their ability to participate in “host” countries. Theories of migration and cultural adaptation from macro, meso and micro-levels are introduced that enable us to understand the dynamic and multifaceted nature of migration and cultural adaptation today. Macro-level theories provide insight into the large scale historical, political and economic structures that shape patterns of migration and adaptation. Micro-level theories enable us to describe and explain individual migrants’ experiences of cultural adjustment and intercultural transformation. Bridging these two, the meso-level focuses on the role of migrant networks in supporting migration and facilitating the creation of transmigrant communities. These theories of migration and cross-cultural adaptation are applied to three case studies pertaining to the experiences of migrants in the global context. Throughout the chapter, the central role of communication in intercultural transitions is highlighted as people navigate the challenges and benefits of crossing borders. Chapter Objectives To understand intercultural border crossing and adaptation within the context of globalization. To explore the unique aspects of migration and intercultural adaptation today as well as the similarities with earlier waves of world migration. To introduce and apply a multi-level framework to analyze intercultural adaptation that accounts for micro, meso and macro-level factors and influences. To gain understanding and empathy for the challenges and rewards of migration and intercultural adaptation in the context of globalization. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below Migrants Chain migration Voluntary/Involuntary migrants Xenophobia Immigrants Nativist movements Sojourners Transmigrants Human trafficking Postcolonial migrants Push/pull migration theory Refugees World systems theory Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) U and W curve models Guest-workers/Contract workers Migrant-host relationships High and Low skilled labor Assimilation Feminization of the workforce Separation Diaspora Marginalization Relative deprivation Integration Brain drain Integrative theory of cultural adaptation Migrant networks Melting pot Transnational communications Pluralism Social capital Introduction Border crossing and migration in the context of globalization are shaped by: Advances in transportation and communication technologies that facilitate frequent, multidirectional flows and the creation of transnational networks of people. The integration of global capital and markets that has accelerated the concentration of wealth and exacerbated economic inequity both within and across nations. The implementation of neoliberal policies that has displaced millions of people who are compelled to move for jobs and livelihood. Escalation in intra-national and international conflict that has propelled unparalleled numbers of people across borders in search of safety, opportunity and the spoils of war. Nation-states that struggle to re-assert control over national boundaries through increasingly restrictive and punitive immigration policies by erecting walls, utilizing sophisticated surveillance and mobilizing large numbers of people to police borders. Nobel Prize winning novelist Toni Morrison’s “A Foreigner’s Home” exemplifies the condition and sentiment of global migration, displacement, and exile in search of “home.” Migrants Migrants: People who move from their primary cultural context, changing their place of residence for an extended period of time. Migrants who choose to leave home to travel or re-locate are called voluntary migrants. Sojourners: Voluntary migrants who leave home for limited periods of time and for specific purposes such as international students, business travelers, tourists, missionaries and military personnel. Immigrants: Voluntary migrants who leave one country and settle permanently in another country. Example: Europeans who moved along colonial routes during the first wave of world migration and to industrial centers in Europe and the Americas in the second wave. Migrants who are forced to leave due to famine, war, and political or religious persecution are called involuntary migrants. Example: Africans who were traded as slaves during the colonial era, refugees who flee their countries of origin due to war and famine, or those seeking asylum for political reasons today. Human trafficking: A form of involuntary migration in which people are transported for sex work and other types of labor against their will. Historical Overview of World Migration The first wave of world migration Traced to the European colonial era from the 16th century through the 19th century. Thousands of migrants—sailors, soldiers, traders, missionaries, administrators and later farmer-settlers—sailed out of ports of Europe for colonies in Africa, Asia and the Americas, establishing sea trade routes that continue to structure migration flows today. A general pattern followed as colonizers appropriated the so-called “empty” lands and used indigenous peoples to extract the material wealth of the land. After indigenous labor was almost exhausted or annihilated through genocide and disease, the forced migration of over 15 million slaves from the west coast of Africa provided the labor for the production of commodities in mines and plantations (such as gold, silver, coffee, sugar and cotton) in the colonies. The African diaspora dispersed people around the world to the Americas, Europe and Asia. Some 12-37 million people were transported internationally as indentured servants, representing a significant migratory flow to over 40 countries after the abolition of slavery in the mid-19th century. Working under very poor conditions, indentured laborers were recruited—sometimes by force and sometimes voluntarily—and then transported great distances to fill the labor needs of European colonies. The wealth extracted from the colonies supported the lavish lifestyles of the ruling elite in Europe. The exploitation of labor and land was crucial to the rise in economic and political power of European nations that spurred the second large wave of migration. The second wave of migration Took place from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s during the industrial revolution, when peasants from the rural parts of Europe, fleeing poverty and famine, migrated to urban areas in Europe, North and South America Between 1900 and 1930, 40 million people left Europe for North and South America and Australia, first from Britain and Germany, and later from Spain, Italy, Ireland and Eastern Europe Chain migration: Linkages that connect migrants from points of origin to destinations, leading to the segmentation of ethnic groups in the U.S. Example: Irish, Italians and Jews tended to settle in the ports of the East Coast, while Central and Eastern Europeans were drawn to work in heavy industries in the Midwest. Nativist movements: movements that called for the exclusion of foreign-born people. Example: Chinese and other Asian immigrants were targeted through the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1887 Example: Italian and Irish immigrants, viewed as a threat to American values and as not capable of being assimilated, were also excluded. Immigration policy in the U.S. has regulated the racial and economic divide and the access to citizenship. Xenophobia: The fear of outsiders. It dramatically curtailed immigration to the U.S. until after WW II. Textbox: Communicative practices: Rhetoric of Nativism The textbox addresses the anti-immigration legislation in Arizona, and discuss how nativism is produced through the rhetoric of fear, criminality, and exclusion. The third wave Often labeled the post-industrial wave, is more diverse and multidirectional than previous migrations and encompasses patterns of movement since WWII. Following WW II, large numbers of Jews left Europe for Israel, as well as South and North America. Guest workers programs: Workers from the periphery of Europe, Mexico, etc. to fill the labor shortages in industrialized Western Europe and the U.S. due to the war and declining population after WWII through labor agreements established between the governments of the sending and receiving countries. Postcolonial migrants: Migrants who leave former colonies and re-locate in colonizing countries. Labor demands in the former European colonizing countries as well as political and economic instability in struggling recently-independent nations resulted in postcolonial migrants, Example: The movement of Indian, Pakistani and Caribbean migrants to England; North African, Tunisian, Moroccan and West African migrants to France, as well as the movement of migrants from Indonesia, a former Dutch colony, to the Netherlands. Postcolonial migration patterns counter the directional flows of the first wave of colonial migration resulting in the unanticipated growth of significant non-White, ethnic minority populations within Europe. From the 1920s to 1965, immigration to the U.S. was severely restricted. Migrant workers from Mexico were recruited through a guest worker program called the Bracero Program in the 1940s to fill labor shortages during WWII. Migrants who participated in this program made tremendous contributions to the agricultural industry in the U.S. They provided skilled, low-wage work until the mid-1960s when the program was ended due to protests over harsh working conditions and severe human rights violations. Migration to the U.S. declined until amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act in 1965 challenged the discriminatory national-origins quota system. The change was not intended or expected to instigate large-scale migration from non-European countries. Yet, with the shift to kinship and family reunification with U.S. citizens as the main criteria, the number of Latin American and Asian immigrations increased dramatically. Migration Trends in the Context of Globalization In the later part of the 20th century and into the new millennium, migration is increasingly rapid, complex, multi-directional and diverse. Countries in Europe who were, in the first and second waves of migration, primarily sending countries are now receiving migrants from Eastern European countries and from former colonies. Example: While European countries depend on immigrants to fill labor needs and to support the negative population growth, ethnic, racial and religious demographic changes have heightened cultural and political conflicts and increased anti-immigrant sentiment. Example: Latin America was previously seen as a receiving continent during the colonial and industrial migration waves. However, as a result of macro-level changes such as economic liberalization, Latin America is experiencing massive rural to urban migration within nations, international migration within Latin America (for example, temporary migrants from Nicaragua to Costa Rica and from El Salvador to Mexico) and international migration to North America. Example: As global economic integration concentrates wealth in more developed countries, Africans from less developed and poverty-ridden countries are driven to more affluent neighboring countries such as the Ivory Coast and South Africa. Refugees: People who are forced to flee for safety from their country of origin due to war, fear of persecution or famine. While the number of official refugees has declined in the last decade, the number of internally displaced persons, refugees within one’s own country of origin, has increased to approximately 25 million. Contract workers: Migrant laborers who work through labor agreements established between the governments of the sending and receiving countries. Example: Migration patterns within and to the Arab region are propelled primarily by the magnet of oil rich countries that draws laborers from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia to the Middle East. High and Low Skilled Labor: A global division of labor in which educated, high skilled workers migrate to developed countries to work in high tech and medical professions, and low skilled laborers migrate to wealth concentrated countries driven by poverty, and seek work in places such as factory, agriculture, food processing, sex industry and domestic labor. Regional economic disparities draw low skilled workers from poorer countries—Philippines, India, Sri Lanka—to wealth concentrated Asian countries—Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia—who often perform what is known as the three Ds in Japan, work that is “difficult, dangerous and dirty” such as factory, agricultural, food processing, sex industry and domestic labor. On the other end of the spectrum, educated, high skilled workers migrate from Asia, primarily from India and China, to developed countries such as the U.S., Canada, England and Australia to work in high tech and medical professions. Feminization of the Workforce: An increased demand for female migrant workers as domestic caretaker and low-skilled factory workers. Women are often preferred for low-skilled work because they can be paid less and are more easily exploited. Today, one half of the 192 million international migrants are women, exacerbating the familial, social, and economic impact of migration and displacement. Theories of Migration and Intercultural Adaptation Macro-level Theories Push/Pull Theory: A theory of migration that circumstances in the country of origin “push” people towards migratory paths and conditions in the country of destination “pull” people towards particular locations. World-systems theory: A theory of migration that international migration today is a result of the structure of the global capitalism. Migration flows from less developed or 3rd World countries to more highly developed or 1st world countries are a result of global structural inequity grounded in colonization. Nation-states and global institutions that act on behalf of capitalists drive migration as they take advantage of land, labor, resources and markets in peripheral or 3rd World countries. Decisions, policies and treaties made at the global institutional level—the WTO, the IMF and the World Bank—create conditions where people cannot survive in their countries of origin, propelling migration. Melting Pot: A metaphor of U.S. society that the migrants’ adaptation to a new culture inevitably requires and allows newcomers to “melt” or “blend” into the mainstream to form a cohesive whole. Popularized by Jewish immigrant Israel Zangwill in his play in the early 1900s, assumes that the migrants’ adaptation to a new culture requires and allows newcomers to “melt” or “blend” into the mainstream to form a cohesive whole. The myth of the melting pot masks the ways that some migrants are not allowed to “melt” and casts suspicion on those who do not want to shed their cultural norms, values and practices. Pluralism: An ideology that emphasizes the maintenance of ethnic and cultural values, norms and practices within a multicultural society. Micro Level Theories U-curve model of adaptation Models of cultural adaptation, consisting of three stages: anticipation, culture shock, and adjustment. Anticipation: Excitement about the new culture characterizes the sojourner’s experience. Culture shock: The disorientation and discomfort sojourners experience from being in an unfamiliar environment. Adjustment: The sojourner learns to negotiate the verbal and nonverbal codes, values, norms, behaviors and assumptions of the new culture. Adjustment varies considerably based on a range of factors including the sojourner’s desire to adapt, the host culture’s receptivity, the degree of similarity or difference between home and host cultures, as well as age, gender, race and socioeconomic background. W-Curve model: Addresses the challenges of re-entry into one’s “home” culture Re-entry or return may follow a similar pattern of anticipation, culture shock and adjustment. Migrant-Host Relationships: The attitudes of migrants towards their host and own cultures. Assimilation: The migrant values the host’s culture more than his/her own culture. Separation: The migrant values his/her own or home culture more than the host culture. Marginalization: The migrant places little value on either her/his own culture or the host culture. Integration: The migrant values both his/her own culture and the host culture. Migration in the Context of Globalization The attitudes of the migrant to adaptation are not the only factors that influence the migrant-host mode of relationship. The host nation’s immigration policies, the institutional practices and the attitudes of the dominant culture towards the migrant and her/his group also impact migrants’ experiences. It is important to consider what role racism and ethnocentrism play in the host or majority culture’s receptivity to the migrant and his or her culture Migrants move more frequently and rapidly between “host” and “home” cultures, and the modes of relationship that migrants maintain with their own culture within their country of origin is increasingly significant in the intercultural adaptation process. Textbox 2: Cultural Identity: Home, Family and Culture A discussion on a Chinese American man whose cultural identity shifted throughout his life across his American culture and the Chinese ancestral homeland. Integrative theory of cultural adaptation A theory of cultural adaptation that the individual and the environment co-define adaptation process, including the attitudes and receptivity of the host environment, the ethnic communities within the majority culture, and the psychological characteristics of the individual. Humans have an innate self-organizing drive and a capacity to adapt to environmental challenges. Adaptation of an individual to a given cultural environment occurs in and through communication. Adaptation is a complex and dynamic process that brings about a qualitative transformation of the individual. Stress, adaptation and growth interact with each other in adjusting in new and different cultural environments. Deculturation: The unlearning of some aspects of their culture of origin. Intercultural transformation: Occurs as a result of this stress-adaptation-growth process and identifies three outcomes: Increased functional fitness of the migrant’s ability to engage effectively with the host culture. Improved psychological health of the migrant in coping with the environment. A shift towards an intercultural identity, which allows the migrant to connect and identify with multiple cultural groups. Meso Level Theories Meso-level theories of migration and cultural adaptation seek to bridge macro-level theories that emphasize structural issues and micro-level theories that focus on individual attributes in the cultural adaptation process. Migrant networks: Interpersonal connections among current and former migrants, as well as non-migrants in origin and destination areas through ties of kinship, friendship and shared origin. Social groups and collective cultural relationships motivate, sustain and give meaning to migration and cultural adaptation processes. Migrant social networks provide information and support for travel, housing, employment, education and health care. Social Capital: The sense of commitment and obligation people within a group or network have to look after the well-being and interests of one another. Transmigrants: Migrants who move across national boundaries to new locations for work and family reunification and yet, also maintain cultural, social, economic and political ties with their country, region, or city of origin. Example: Social networking website for migrants. Case Studies: Migration and Intercultural Adaptation Villachuato, Mexico to Marshalltown, Iowa: Transnational Connections A case study about Mexican migrants in Iowa. Macro-level analysis: High unemployment and poverty in Mexico relative to the U.S. “push” migrants from Mexico and “pull” them to the U.S. A world systems approach argues that historically, colonization and military force were used to establish conditions for the accumulation of capital by European and U.S. powers. Today, the conditions are established and maintained by “free trade agreements,” (i.e. NAFTA and CAFTA) negotiated through global governance bodies such as the IMF, WB and WTO. Meso-level analysis: Migrant networks pass along knowledge and experience about safe migration routes, work, housing, and other services through interpersonal communication with friends, family relations and community connections. Transnational communities: Communities constructed by transmigrants, characterized by intertwining familial relationships across locations, identification with “home” or sending locations, and the ability to mobilize collective resources. Micro-level analysis: The transmigrants’ social, cultural, economic and political allegiance to and sustained contact with their community in Mexico challenges the migrant-host mode of relationship of assimilation. The migrant-host mode of relationship in this case is initially one of separation both voluntary and imposed. As a transnational community is forged, Marshalltown residents and the community as a whole are also changed over time by the interactions and experience a process of intercultural adaptation characterized by stress, adaptation and growth. Fujian, China to New York City, USA: Human Smuggling of Low-Skilled Workers A case study of a Chinese family migrated to New York City through underground network. Micro-level analysis: U-Curve and W-Curve Model: Ms. Zhang experienced the stages of the U-Curve model as she progressed through excitement and anticipation, the disorientation and anxiety of culture shock and an extended period of cultural adjustment. She experienced disorientation after her return to China. Macro-level analysis: Push-pull theory: Workers in China, on average, can make about twice as much in cities than in rural areas and as much as eight times more in coastal cities. In the U.S., the average income is twenty times that of earnings in coastal cities of China. Yet, on a wage of $3 per hour as undocumented workers, migrants work 80-90 hours per week to cover basic needs and pay off debts to their smugglers. Media: Media images of wealth, lavish lifestyles, and material success circulate around the world creating dissatisfaction with what one has and instilling desires for greater wealth and status, creating a sense of relative deprivation. Brain Drain: An aspect of high-skilled migration in which high-skilled workers migrate to another country, resulting in a huge loss in terms of knowledge, skills, investment and capital for sending countries. Example: The large numbers of Indian scientists, doctors and computer programmers who migrated to the U.S. and other 1st World countries in the 1980s and 1990s are an example of brain drain. Yet, today, with the phenomenal growth of high tech industries in India, many Indian migrants are returning to India. North Africa-France: Post-colonial immigrant experience A case study of Nazim, a 25 years old French citizen of Algerian descent who struggles to belong in French society and his parents’ Algerian culture. Macro-level analysis: Colonial history and postcolonial relationship between France and Algeria. As a postcolonial immigrant, Nazim negotiates his racial, cultural, religious and class positions in France. Racism and prejudice underscore the experiences of Algerian immigrants in France. Meso-level analysis: Migrant networks: Algerian migrants’ segregation from and stigmatization within mainstream French culture was intensified by discriminatory housing and employment practices, law enforcement, legal and educational systems. Immigrant Algerian communities in France played a significant role in the Algerian independence movement leading to brutal conflicts between French authorities and protesters. Protesting the rise in racist killings and their second-class citizenship status even as they hold French nationality, young people from Algerian communities in France organized anti-racist social movements in the 1980s. Stereotypes, institutionalized forms of discrimination and anti-immigrant rhetoric have intensified in recent years as high levels of unemployment and socio-economic crisis exclude French citizens of Algerian descent. Micro-level analysis: Marginalization best describes the migrant-host-home relationship that Nazim experiences both in France and Algeria. When he returns to Algeria, he is perceived as “too French,” as a “traitor” in the complex postcolonial and neocolonial relationship between Algeria and France. In the Algerian community in Paris, he sets himself apart from local groups who have organized based on religious affiliation to meet the needs of the community. Summary of the Case Studies A number of factors influence the experiences of migrants crossing borders today. The history of relations between nations. The globalization of capitalism, integration of markets, and the implementation of neoliberal polices. Legal and economic status, educational level, language abilities, gender, age and familiarity with the “host” culture. The reception of the “host” culture to the migrant group also has a tremendous impact. Migrant networks and support. Summary Types of migrants. Historical overview of world migration Migration trends in the context of globalization Theories of migration and intercultural adaptation Case studies
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Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 8 The Culture of Capitalism and the Business of Intercultural Communication Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview The financial crisis that erupted in the U.S. in fall 2008 sent shock waves throughout the entire global financial system with devastating consequences for billions around the world. The economic crisis illustrates well the intricate web of financial interdependence, the frailty of the global economic system and the ubiquitous yet uneven impact of economic globalization. Around the globe and in the U.S., the economic crisis dramatically increased the ranks of the unemployed and the number of people living in poverty. Foreclosed homes, lost jobs, reduced credit to meet payroll, diminished investments, shrinking consumption, corporate closures, furloughs and layoffs, bank collapses, reduced remittances that increase hardship for people dependent on money from migrants, a dramatic slow-down in world trade…what does all this have to do with intercultural communication? This chapter addresses the linkages between intercultural communication and capitalism historically and today in the global context. We begin with a history of capitalism and discuss the emergence of the culture of capitalism in the U.S. and globally. The purpose of the overview of the culture of capitalism is threefold: the first goal is to situate the culture of capitalism historically to understand how we find ourselves where we are today; the second aim is to unmask what is seen as “normal” and “just the way things are” by revealing the values, assumptions and ideologies that underlie and constitute the culture of capitalism; the third purpose is to understand how the culture of capitalism impacts intercultural interactions. A discussion of cultural dimensions in the workplace, trends in managing “diversity” and multicultural and virtual teams is presented to understand the challenges and benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce. The global intercultural marketplace is our next stop where we explore the commodification of culture, tourism and the consumption of cultural “others.” The final section offers steps to move towards increased economic and social responsibility as intercultural actors in the global context. Chapter Objectives To understand how the culture of capitalism impacts intercultural communication. To explore the history, values and ideologies that constitute the culture of capitalism and the effect on cultures in the U.S. and globally. To examine the cultural dimensions of the workplace, diversity management and multicultural teams. To provide concrete strategies for economic and social responsibility as intercultural actors in the global context. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below Capitalism GLOBE Dimensions Use Value Assertiveness Exchange Value Performance Orientation Surplus Value Humane Orientation Sign Value Mercantilism Multicultural Teams Neoliberalism Virtual Teams Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Commodification of Culture Individualism-Collectivism Spectacle Power Distance Fetishization Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity-Femininity Confucian Dynamism Introduction: The economic crisis in 2008 illustrates the intricate web of financial interdependence, the frailty of the global economic system and the ubiquitous yet uneven impact of economic globalization. The economic crisis reveals wealth disparities among racial and ethnic groups and the inequitable global relations between developed and developing nations. Commodities shape intercultural relations, migrations, and intercultural conflicts. This chapter addresses the linkages between intercultural communication and capitalism historically and today in the global context. Historical Context: Capitalism and Globalization Capitalism 101: The Historical Emergence of the Culture of Capitalism Capitalism: A complex social logic that produces a set of relationships among capitalists, laborers, and consumers. Use Value: The value of commodity determined by its utility. Exchange Value: The value of commodity determined by the profit it generates through exchange. Capitalism and Colonialism: Capital Accumulation and the Nation-State At the beginning of the 1400s, China was the most technologically advanced society in the world with sophisticated trade practices, military, and political/social organization. By the 16th century, economic dominance shifted to Europe. The extraction of raw materials from the New World and other colonies financed the European development. Slavery provided the exploitable mass labor to extract raw materials to produce commodities, which were sold for profit developing the modern capitalist economy. The world racial hierarchy was foundational to the accumulation of capital and the concentration of wealth in Europe and the U.S. By the 17th century, the nobility and merchant class in European nation-states enacted policies and practices, which economist refer to as mercantilism. Mercantilism: The implementation of protectionist policies that exclude foreign goods and subsidize cheap labor in certain industries. Trading companies (i.e. the East Indies Trading Company, the Hudson’s Bay Company. Precursors to today’s corporations) joined forces with nation-state militaries to ensure the continued extraction of wealth around the world. Intercultural encounters with trading companies dramatically altered the way of life, economic livelihood and social organization of indigenous communities in the New World and Africa. Material things made locally such as pottery, clothing, tools and weapons were replaced by imported goods. Increased dependence on world trade and contributed to the loss of cultural knowledge. Integration into the world economy, then as now, has significant and irreversible impact on cultures. Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution: Creating the Working Class The industrial revolution in England between the 1800s-1900s initiated a new means of capital accumulation. The link between producers and the means of production is severed. Control of the means of production—land, materials, tools and equipment—are taken away from peasants, craftspeople and workers. Workers have no alternative but to negotiate agreements to use the land and the tools they need, receiving wages for their labor. Since capitalists control the means of production and the goods that are produced, laborers who produce the goods must buy what they need from capitalists. Therefore, people not only become laborers but also consumers. Thus, through the industrial revolution of the 19th century, the working class was forged. Working class is characterized by: Members of the working class must be mobile, allowing them to move, unfettered by property ownership, to places where work is needed. They are segmented by race, ethnicity, gender, religion and age. They must be disciplined. Modeled after prisons, the factory was a central site of control with constant supervision, rewards and punishments. The culture of capitalism established a distinct orientation to time as ruled by the clock, equated with money and exploited like commodities and laborers for maximum profit. They often resisted the conditions imposed upon them by the capitalist class. Capitalism and Consumption: Creating the Consumer By the late 1800s, capitalism had reached a defining moment with panic gripping businesspeople and governments. The construction of the capitalist and labor classes led to the overproduction of goods and economic depression loomed. In the early 20th century, the consumer was born. To accommodate the excess production of goods accomplished through the industrial revolution, luxuries had to be transformed into necessities. Americans had to be socialized through rewards and enticements to consume and the desire for things developed through the culture of capitalism. Textbox 1: Intercultural Praxis: Culture and Consumption The textbox discusses how we can use intercultural praxis to understand the spread of consumer culture around the world. Uses examples from India to show how the development in Indian economy cultivated younger generations as consumers. Capitalism, Corporations and Global Bodies of Governance Corporations have their origins in the trading companies of the 17th century, which allowed groups of investors to avoid the risk of individual debt and loss though backing by the nation-state. Today, corporations exercise power through campaign contributions, lobbying for legislation such as “free” trade agreements, environmental, health care and labor policies as well as military contracts that serve corporate interests and by using the media to influence public opinion. At the end of WWII, President Roosevelt invited government financial leaders from 44 countries to Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to lay out plans to re-build war-torn economies and to insure economic stability. Established the IMF, the World Bank, and the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, later the World Trade Organization) These organizations forced the integration of Latin American, Asian, African, and Eastern European countries into global economy. Their regulations and restrictions on developing countries had devastating impact on the local economies and social services. Capitalism, Neoliberalism and Globalization At the end of the 20th century, neoliberalism dramatically increased the movement of capital, commodities, services, information and labor around the globe. Neoliberalism: The reassertion of liberal ideologies for reduced state intervention, deregulation, privatization, decreased social protection, and elimination of labor unions. Today, global financial institutions (IMF, WB, WTO) replaced the colonial and military forces to accumulate capital and exploit labor. Surplus value: The profit made by reducing labor costs. Companies move their manufacturing and assembly sites offshore to countries like Mexico, China and Indonesia where cheaper labor is available, and where few if any labor laws or environmental restrictions exist. Dispossessed of their land and means of production, farmers and craftspeople in developing nations have no choice but to seek work in factories at less than living wages. The labor force is segmented or stratified based on various forms of social discrimination. The increased flow of women into the workforce who are paid lower wages than men. In the logic of capitalism, sexism, racism, bias against immigrants and exploitation of the working class are profitable. Capitalism shapes and informs U.S. culture and cultures that are touched or engulfed by its catalytic and consuming powers. The Culture of Capitalism The culture of capitalism promotes: Individualism. Competitiveness The pursuit of personal goals and interests. Consumption. Social relations that are structured by consumer relations. Interpersonal relationships that are theorized, assessed and experienced in terms of costs and benefits. Relationships that are mediated and expressed through commodities, where relationships with people are secondary to relationships with things. Segmentation and stratification of labor as well as consumers. Reinforces and profits from sexism, racism, classism and other forms of social discrimination. The rhetoric of “colorblindness,” “cultural difference,” and the market logic of capitalism. Textbox 2: Communicative Dimensions: Communication and Ideology Uses the movie Wall Street (1987) and its sequel (2010) to discuss the shifting ideologies of capitalism and corporate greed. Shows examples of how capitalist ideologies are part of our everyday communication, such as proverbs and bumper stickers. In capitalist societies, our identities, values, and relationships are mediated and defined by commodities. Intercultural Communication at Work Cultural Dimensions of the Workplace Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: In the late 1960s Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede (1980) came up with four dimensions of cultural variability through his research on IBM employees. Individualism-Collectivism: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the differences between individualistic cultures and collectivistic cultures. Power Distance: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights how the less powerful members accept unequal distribution of power within organizations. Uncertainty Avoidance: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the tendency to feel threatened by unknown and uncertain situations. Masculinity-Femininity: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that distinguishes the societies with distinct gender roles and achievements (masculinity) and societies with flexible gender norms and balanced lifestyle (femininity). Confucian Dynamism: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the characteristics of East Asian countries such as long-term orientation to time, hard work, frugality, and respect for hierarchy. GLOBE Dimensions: Nine cultural dimensions of Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness, including institutional and group collectivism, gender egalitarianism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, future orientation, assertiveness, performance orientation, and humane orientation. Assertiveness: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the extent to which individuals in organization or societies are assertive and confrontational. Performance Orientation: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the extent to which an organization/society rewards members for their quality of performance and level of involvement. Humane Orientation: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the degree to which organizations/society reward people for being fair, friendly, generous, and kind to others. Managing Diversity, Multicultural and Virtual Teams Multicultural teams: Task-oriented groups composed of members from different national and ethnic groups. The cultural composition of work groups impacts group effectiveness in three inter-related ways: Cultural norms about how work groups function and how they are structured Cultural diversity or the number of different cultures in the group Relative cultural distance or the degree to which members of the group are culturally different from one another. Virtual Teams: Work groups with members who are geographically dispersed and who rely on technology-mediated communication. Virtual terms can face a number of misunderstandings and conflicts due to the lack of awareness of cultural differences. Example: E-mail exchanges between U.S. Americans and Israelis. Effective virtual teams can be achieved by building trust, offering constructive feedback, increasing awareness of cultural differences and histories, and establishing group norms. The Intercultural Marketplace and Economic Responsibility Commodification of Culture: The practice in which cultural experiences are produced and consumed for the market. Example: Art work created by Pueblo and Navajo women in New Mexico, and how tourists and buyers consume them as “traditional” and “authentic” cultural products. Cultural difference is viewed as exotic and marketable. Commodification of culture often creates barriers for ICC. Creates stereotypes. Reduces cultural differences into objects IC relations are reduced into monetary exchanges. Tourism and Intercultural Communication Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries employing more than 258 million people worldwide. Travel can provide opportunities for intercultural engagement. However, today, tourists increasingly choose options that limit their exposure and access to the very places they pay to visit. On the one hand, Western tourists desire and often demand the familiarity of “home;” yet, simultaneously, complaints abound that “other” cultures are too “Americanized,” too “Westernized” or too much like home. Spectacle: The domination of media images and consumer society over individuals and their relationships with others. Seduced through leisure, entertainment and consumption, the spectacle serves to pacify and depoliticize society. Happiness and fulfillment are found through consumption of commodities and spectacles. Example: Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans. Sign Value: The symbolic value of commodity that conveys social meaning and social positioning. Fetishization: The process of endowing commodities with symbolic and social power. Example: The marketing and consumption of Mardi Gras serves both to accumulate profits for commercial interests and at the same time constructs demands for and attempts to satisfy the tourists’ desires for experiences—experiences that satisfy needs for self-expression and identity. The fetishization of commodities and the spectacle society hide the exploitation of labor, damage to the environment and the impact on culture that make them possible. Economic Responsibility and Intercultural Communication Disparities caused by the culture of capitalism: U.S. Americans, 4.6% of the world’s population, accounted for 33% of the global consumption. The one billion residents of high income countries consumed more than 80% of the global total. The 2.3 billion residents of low income countries consumed less than 3%. Today, more than 1/5th of the world’s population lives on the brink of hunger and death. Four Steps Towards Economic Justice and Sustainability: Observe your consumption patterns Keep a journal of the things you purchase Note where you shop Note where the goods—things, entertainment and experiences—are produced Educate yourself about the circumstances and impact As a consumer: Find out about the working conditions of the people who make the goods you consume; engage in dialogue with the people who provide services for you while on vacation or when consuming a cultural experience. As a laborer/worker: Learn about the relationship between owners and workers in your organization/corporation; educate yourself about the norms, behaviors and attitudes that have enabled the success (or lack of it) of your company/organization. As a capitalist: If you have a savings account, investments, stocks or other means of making money from money, learn about how this works. Act responsibly based on your knowledge Make conscious and responsible consumer choices: For example, when you find out that the mega-store where you prefer to shop is only able to provide such low prices because of exploitative labor and unsustainable environmental practices, seek out alternatives. Transform sites of consumption into sites for intercultural praxis: Along with purchasing an object or experience, actively engage in intercultural dialogue. Act to challenge inequities in the workplace. Join others in challenging inequity and injustice Consider your spheres of influence: Make a point of talking with others about your decisions and find others who support your values of social and economic responsibility. Join consumer groups or activist organizations: One of the greatest losses of advanced capitalist societies is human connection, engagement with others and civic contributions. Join or start your own group that creates alternatives and challenges the dehumanizing conditions of the culture of capitalism. Summary Introduction Historical context of capitalism and globalization Culture of capitalism Intercultural communication at work The intercultural marketplace and economic responsibility