Hello, I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays,

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I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays, how does opioid-related spending compared to other hospital-stay visits, affects the hospital financially and interfere with patient’s outcome?”. Please use one refence from my previous paper and include 1-2 new refences(within the last 5 years of publication).

Hello, I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays,
NR449 Evidence-Based Practice RUA: Analyzing Published Research Evidence Matrix Table Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 (SAMPLE ARTICLE) Smith, L. (2013). What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112. How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes? D-Dietary modifications I-Education Qualitative N- 18 Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA Focus Groups Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications. 1 2 3 4 5 © 2021 Chamberlain University. All Rights Reserved NR449_Matrix_Table_V4_JUL22 1
Hello, I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays,
NR449 Evidence-Based Practice RUA: Analyzing Published Research Guidelines Purpose The purpose of this paper is to interpret the two articles identified as most important to the group topic. Course outcomes: This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes. CO 2: Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs 4 and 8) CO 4: Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and clinical significance related to evidence-based practice. (POs 4 and 8) Due date: Your faculty member will inform you when this assignment is due. The Late Assignment Policy applies to this assignment. Total points possible: 200 points Preparing the assignment Follow these guidelines when completing this assignment. Speak with your faculty member if you have questions. Please make sure you do not duplicate articles within your group. The paper will include the following: Clinical Question (30 points/15%) Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? ***Please note that although most of these questions are the same as you addressed in paper 1, the purpose of this paper is different. You can use your paper 1 for items 1 & 2 above, including any faculty suggestions for improvement provided as feedback. Use Evidence Matrix Table Template: Data Summary – (60 points/30%) Categorize items in the Evidence Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. References (recent publication within the last 5 years) Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s) Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D) Study Design Sample Size and Selection Data Collection Methods Major Findings (Evidence) Description of Findings (60 points/30%) Describe the data in the Evidence Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. Compare and contrast variables within each study. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participant demographics and information. Instruments used, including reliability and validity. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion (20 points/10%) Review major findings in a summary paragraph. Evidence to address your clinical problem. Make a connection back to all the included sections. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. Format (30 points/15%) Correct grammar and spelling Include a title and reference page Use of headings for each section: Problem Synthesis of the Literature Variables Methods Participants Instruments Implications for Future Work Conclusion Adheres to current APA formatting and guidelines Include at least two (2) scholarly, current (within 5 years) primary sources other than the textbook 3-4 pages in length, excluding appendices, title, and reference pages For writing assistance, visit the Writing Center. Please note that your instructor may provide you with additional assessments in any form to determine that you fully understand the concepts learned. 2 Grading Rubric Criteria are met when the student’s application of knowledge demonstrates achievement of the outcomes for this assignment. Assignment Section and Required Criteria (Points possible/% of total points available) Highest Level of Performance High Level of Performance Satisfactory Level of Performance Unsatisfactory Level of Performance Section not present in paper Clinical Question (30 points/15%) 30 points 26 points 24 points 11 points 0 points Required criteria Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? Includes 3 requirements for section. Includes 2 requirements for section. Includes 1 requirement for section. Present, yet includes no required criteria. No requirements for this section presented. Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary (Appendix A) (60 points/30%) 60 points 56 points 47 points 25 points 0 points Required criteria Categorize items in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. References (recent publication within the last 5 years) Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s) Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D) Study Design Sample Size and Selection Data Collection Methods Major Findings (Evidence) Includes 7 requirements for section. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Description of Findings (60 points/30%) 60 points 53 points 47 points 23 points 0 points Required criteria Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. Compare and contrast variables within each study. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participant demographics and information. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 requirements for section. Includes 3 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Assignment Section and Required Criteria (Points possible/% of total points available) Highest Level of Performance High Level of Performance Satisfactory Level of Performance Unsatisfactory Level of Performance Section not present in paper Instruments used, including reliability and validity. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion (20 points/10%) 20 points 18 points 15 points 8 points 0 points Required criteria Review major findings in a summary paragraph. Evidence to address your clinical problem. Make a connection back to all the included sections. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. Includes 3 requirements for section. Includes 2 requirements for section. Includes 1 requirement for section. Present, yet includes no required criteria. No requirements for this section presented. Format (30 points/15%) 30 points 26 points 23 points 11 points 0 points Required criteria Correct grammar and spelling Include a title and reference page Use of headings for each section: Problem Synthesis of the Literature Variables Methods Participants Instruments Implications for Future Work Conclusion Adheres to current APA formatting and guidelines Includes at least two (2) scholarly, current (within 5 years) primary sources other than the textbook 3-4 pages in length excluding appendices, title, and reference pages Includes 7 requirements for section. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Total Points Possible = 200 points Appendix A EVIDENCE MATRIX TABLE Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 Smith, L. (2013). What How do educational support D-Dietary Quantitative N- 18 Focus Groups Support and education (SAMPLE should I eat? A focus for groups effect dietary modifications modifications Convenience improved compliance with ARTICLE) those living with diabetes. in patients with diabetes? I-Education sample-selected dietary modifications. Journal of Nursing from local support Education, 1(4), 111-112. group in Pittsburgh, PA 1 2 3 4 5 © 2022 Chamberlain University. All Rights Reserved NR449_RUA_Analyzing_Published_Research_v4_JUL22 3
Hello, I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays,
0 Your Title Here Your Name (without credentials) Chamberlain University College of Nursing Course Number: Course Name Name of Instructor Assignment Due Date Title of Your Paper in Upper and Lower Case (Centered, Bold) This Template is a guide, please refer to your rubric for all criteria, and feel free to adjust the headings names. This is just an example of how to structure your paper using headings with some content from the rubric. Type your introduction here. Although the first paragraph after the paper title is the introduction, no heading labeled “Introduction” is used. This is a great place to utilize a scholarly resource, to emphasize why the topic is important. Problem This section will discuss your Clinical Question. Be sure to talk about these following rubric critera below. Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary Include a few lines describing what you are going to discuss here as a brief introduction. When done write a sentence telling the reader to please see Appendix A. (This is at the end after your references and is your matrix table that you will complete). Synthesis of the Literature This is the section for Description of Findings. Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. (Delete this information) Variables Compare and contrast variables within each study. Methods What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participants Participant demographics and information. Instruments Instruments used, including reliability and validity Implications for Future Work How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion Papers should end with a conclusion or summary. It should be concise and contain no new information. No matter how much space remains on the page, the references always start on a separate page (insert a page break after the conclusion so that the references will start on a new page). Review major findings in a summary paragraph. 1. Evidence to address your clinical problem. 2. Make a connection back to all the included sections. 3. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. References (centered, bold) Type your reference here using hanging indent and double line spacing (under “Paragraph” on the Home toolbar ribbon). Refrences in alphabetical order. See your APA Manual and the resources in the APA section of Resources for reference formatting. Journal Citation Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy Website Example: Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL Format for Books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available) Appendix A (Appendix is on its own page after references) Subject of the Appendix (Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary is fine) Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 Smith, L. (2013). What How do educational support D-Dietary Quantitative N- 18 Focus Groups Support and education (SAMPLE should I eat? A focus for groups effect dietary modifications modifications Convenience improved compliance with ARTICLE) those living with diabetes. in patients with diabetes? I-Education sample-selected dietary modifications. Journal of Nursing from local support Education, 1(4), 111-112. group in Pittsburgh, PA 1 2 3 4 5
Hello, I have attached my previous paper, rubric, and matrix template. My topic is Overdose and the impact on Healthcare. My main focus/PICOT question “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays,
Overdose and the Impact on Health Care Chamberlain University College of Nursing NR 449 Evidence Based Practice Overdose and the Impact on Health Care The opioid overdose has been gaining attention in the nation. Despite the efforts of the healthcare system to help people, the overdose death rates continue to increase. Opioid overdose is drastically increasing in the United States and as a result many people are dying from it. The national public health declared an opioid epidemic emergency on October 26th, 2017 (Boté, 2019). Approximately 130 Americans die daily as a consequence of opioid overdose (Boté, 2019). It is clearly that misusage of opioids taking the lives of many Americans. How has this opioid epidemic affected our healthcare? The purpose of the following paper is meant to figure the impact of health care and the public health. Clinical Question The current opioid pandemic is causing many problems. These include death and suicide, risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome, impacts the safety of our first responders and creates and economic hardship due to prescription abuse (Walters et al., 2022). The focus of our group’s work is to determine how these issues affect the healthcare and the public health. The focus of this research is to target how opioid overdose affects our healthcare system and the public health. Respiratory depression is one the primary outcome as a result of opioid overdose (Boté, 2019). At this stage, the patient’s breathing becomes slow, or can stop. As a result, the patient can develop permanent brain damage, can go into coma, or even die. According to research, there was increase of 19% of overdose death among teenagers due to complications from respiratory complication (Boté, 2019). Another patient outcome from opioid misusage can lead to a risk of developing HIV and the transmission of hepatitis C. The CDC estimates 1 in 36 men and 1 in 23 women will have an HIV diagnosis in their lifetime (Boté, 2019). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) could be developed by infants as a result of opioid exposure. These infants could have complications fetal growth and preterm birth. It has been discovered NAS has increased by 433% from 2004 to 2014 (Boté, 2019). Lastly, the opioid pandemic creates an economic hardship to the United States. Some of these burdens include productivity loss, high healthcare cost, addiction treatments, and the approximate cost of criminal justice is 78.5 billion dollars (Boté, 2019). I utilized the PICOT acronym to develop a question that answers how opioid addiction affect our healthcare. The question I developed is “In patients with opioid-related hospital stays, how does opioid-related spending compared to other hospital-stay visits, affects the hospital financially and interfere with patient’s outcome?” The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence-based practice information, through the research process, to support the importance of this study in to answer the PICOT question. Levels of Evidence The PICOT question that was asked could be identified as harm/etiology. We want to know whether opioid-related hospital stays affect the hospital financially which could ultimately cause harm to other hospital visits. This could push the hospital to cut back on some supplies due to the high spending with these patients. The adequate research approach would be a longitudinal-cohort study. The longitudinal research takes variables and gathers data for short or long period time (Mallow et al., 2018). This data could be compared within the same hospital and see how spending is spread out among hospital visits. The information could also be obtained and compared to other hospitals. Another type of study that could be perform to answer or PICOT question would be an observational study. This type of evidence billing data could be obtained from different setting and compared among them (Mallow et al., 2018). This study could also provide us with different tables that would separate admission source, discharge destination, payer, hospital stay, and other comorbidities (Mallow et al., 2018). Search Strategy In order to complete my research on my topic, the search terms I utilized included “opioid overdose in the United States,” “impact of overdose in the healthcare system,” “research of opioid overdose,” “treatment of opioid addiction,” “hospital cost for opioid-related visits,” “what are the causes of opioid addiction,” “effects of opioid overdose on the public health,” and “opioid epidemic in the United States.” The results I received included both evidence-based articles and not evidence-based articles. I came across various articles from early 2000s, Wikipedia, forums from random people, and scholarly articles from at least 5 years old of publication. I first initiated to find evidence-based research through google and only found non-scholarly information. I proceeded with the Chamberlain University library and linked my research with my PICOT question. The results I received from here included NCBI, PubMed, Google Scholar. I made sure my research parameters included evidence-based scholarly articles only and 5 years of publication from current date. I was able to obtain many articles with information that relates to PICOT question. I came across many articles and therefore I decided to refine my search. I needed to make sure I was only highlighting articles. I excluded any books and videos. Relevant Articles After successfully finding my articles, I came across two that are completely relevant to my research. The first article is titled “U.S. Opioid Epidemic: Epidemic: Impact on Public Health and Review of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs)” by Boté (2019). This article explores the consequences of opioid overuse, mortalities, and the effects of health care and public health. This article highlights with great detail the effects of the opioid epidemic in the United States. It explains the economic burden that is placed in the nation by the influx of opioid-related hospital stays. The second article I selected is titled “Geographic variation in hospital costs, payments, and length of stay for opioid-related hospital visits in the USA” by Mallow et al., (2018). This article explains the hospital costs in relation to opioid usage. It demonstrates through an observational study how the nation is exceeding $100 billion annually in relations to opioid crisis. The comparison of hospital all came to the results of opioid crisis leading to a financial burden. Conclusion In conclusion, the opioid epidemic in the United States has been declared as a public health emergency. This is dues to the amount of people that die from it, suicide rates, effect on exposed infants, and the economic burden that has created in our nation. It is clear that this crisis needs to be addressed so that the nation can recover. Both the healthcare system and the public health have been affected by this epidemic. Furthermore, this study primarily focuses on the cost of opioid-related hospital stays in relation to other hospital visits. It has been proven, through evidence-based articles, that the nation has spent approximately $100 billion annually which surpasses other hospital stays. References Boté S. H. (2019). U.S. Opioid Epidemic: Impact on Public Health and Review of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs). Online journal of public health informatics, 11(2), e18. https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v11i2.10113 Mallow, P. J., Belk, K. W., Topmiller, M., & Strassels, S. A. (2018). Geographic variation in hospital costs, payments, and length of stay for opioid-related hospital visits in the USA. Journal of pain research, 11, 3079–3088. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S184724 Walters, S. M., Bolinski, R. S., Almirol, E., Grundy, S., Fletcher, S., Schneider, J., Friedman, S. R., Ouellet, L. J., Ompad, D. C., Jenkins, W., & Pho, M. T. (2022). Structural and community changes during COVID-19 and their effects on overdose precursors among rural people who use drugs: a mixed-methods analysis. Addiction science & clinical practice, 17(1), 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-022-00303-8

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