Cultural Revolution

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Cultural Revolution

Cultural Revolution
W orld H is to ry M r. M attk e N am e: Why did Chinese youth support the Cultural Revolution ? C on te x t o f t h e C ult u ra l R ev olu tio n I n a n e ff o rt t o r e tu rn C hin a t o i ts c o m munis t r o ots , C hair m an M ao Z ed ong t u rn ed t o t h e y outh o f t h e c o untr y t o h elp s ta rt t h e “ C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n.” M ao c alle d o n y oung p eo ple t o t a k e d ow n l e ad in g i n te lle ctu als , p arty l e ad ers , a n d t h eir o w n p are n ts . T hese t e en ag ers c am e t o geth er t o f o rm t h e R ed G uard s. O cto b er 1 949 : M ao d ecla re d v ic to ry i n t h e C om munis t r e v olu tio n a n d e sta b lis h ed t h e P eo ple ’s R ep ublic o f C hin a. M ay 1 966 : A rtic le s i n t h e s ta te c o ntr o lle d p ap ers i n tr o duced t h e i d ea o f a “ C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n.” R ed G uard g ro ups, m ad e u p o f C hin ese y outh , e m erg ed t h ro ughout C hin a. A ug. 1 966 : M ao o ff ic ia lly l a u nch ed t h e “ C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n” w ith a s p eech a t t h e C hin ese C om munis t P arty . O ct. 1 966 : M ao c alle d f o r t h e R ed G uard s t o d estr o y t h e “ F our O ld s” : o ld c u sto m s, o ld c u ltu re , o ld h ab its , a n d o ld i d eas. J an . 1 967 : R ed G uard s a ch ie v ed t h e o verth ro w o f p ro vin cia l p arty c o m mitte e o ff ic ia ls a n d r e p la ced t h em w ith r a d ic als . F eb . 1 967 : T op-le v el C om munis t P arty o ff ic ia ls c alle d f o r a n e n d o f t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n, b ut M ao c o ntin ued t o s u pport i t. S um mer 1 967 : M ao r e p la ced p re -C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n p arty o ff ic ia ls w ith r a d ic als w ho s u pporte d t h e r e v olu tio n. 1 968 : O n M ao ’s o rd ers , t h e R ed G uard s w ere b ro ken u p i n t h e “ ru stif ic atio n m ovem en t,” w here i n div id ual t e en ag ers w ere “ se n t d ow n” t o v illa g es t h ro ughout C hin a t o “ le arn f ro m t h e p easa n ts .” A pril 1 969 : M ao d ecla re d “ v ic to ry ” o f t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n a n d s u pporte d L in B ia o a s h is n ew s u ccesso r. D ocu m en t A : M ao’s L it tle R ed B ook S ourc e 1 “ T he w orld i s y ours , a s w ell a s o urs , b ut i n t h e l a st a n aly sis , i t i s y ours . Y ou y oung p eo ple , f u ll o f v ig or a n d v ita lity , a re i n t h e b lo om o f l if e , l ik e t h e s u n a t e ig ht o r n in e i n t h e m orn in g. O ur h ope i s p la ced i n y ou. T he w orld b elo ngs t o y ou. C hin a’s f u tu re b elo ngs t o y ou.” S ourc e: M ao Z ed ong , Q uota tio ns f r o m C hair m an M ao Z ed ong . p ublis h ed i n 1 964 S ourc e 2 “ W e m ust h elp a ll o ur y oung p eo ple t o u nders ta n d t h at o urs i s s till a v ery p oor c o untr y , t h at w e c an not c h an ge t h is s itu atio n r a d ic ally i n a s h ort t im e, a n d t h at o nly t h ro ugh t h e u nite d e ff o rts o f o ur y ounger g en era tio n a n d a ll o ur p eo ple , w ork in g w ith t h eir o w n h an ds, c an C hin a b e m ad e s tr o ng a n d p ro sp ero us w ith in a p erio d o f s e v era l d ecad es. T he e sta b lis h m en t o f o ur s o cia lis t s y ste m h as o pen ed t h e r o ad l e ad in g t o t h e i d eal s o cie ty o f t h e f u tu re , b ut t o t r a n sla te t h is i d eal i n to r e ality n eed s.” S ourc e: M ao Z ed ong , Q uota tio ns f r o m C hair m an M ao Z ed ong . p ublis h ed i n 1 964 * N ote : M ao’s “ Little R ed B ook” i s a c o lle ctio n o f M ao Z ed ong’s q uota tio ns t h at w ere u se d a s a s o urc e o f i n sp ir a tio n a nd g uid ance f o r m em bers o f t h e R ed G uard d urin g t h e C ultu ra l R evo lu tio n. T hese a re t w o e xcerp ts f r o m t h e b ook, a nd t h ey w ere s p oken i n 1 957. * 1 . W hat w as t h e p urp ose o f M ao ’s L ittle R ed B ook? 2 . W hat a re t w o r e a so ns t h at M ao t h ought y oung p eo ple w ere i m porta n t t o C hin a’s f u tu re ? 3 . H ow m ig ht a y oung p ers o n l iv in g i n 1 964 h av e f e lt u pon r e ad in g t h ese q uote s, a n d w hy ? D ocu m en t B : R ed S on g “ R ed G uard s, R ed G uard s. B urn in g w ith r e v olu tio nary z eal, T este d b y t h e s to rm o f c la ss s tr u ggle , T em pere d f o r b attle o ur h earts a re r e d , S ta n din g f ir m , d ir e ctio n c le ar, o ur v ig or f o r r e v olu tio n s tr o ng, W e f o llo w t h e p arty w ith f u ll d ev otio n, W e a re C hair m an M ao ’s R ed G uard s. R ed G uard s, R ed G uard s. W e w an t t o b e t h e s u ccesso rs t o C om munis m . T he r e v olu tio nary r e d b an ner p asse s o n f ro m g en era tio n t o g en era tio n, W e w an t t o t r y o n t h e g lo rio us t r a d itio n. L ovin g t h e c o untr y , l o vin g t h e p eo ple , l o vin g t h e c o lle ctiv e, l o vin g t o w ork . C onnectin g w ith t h e w ork ers a n d t h e p easa n ts , W e a re C hair m an M ao ’s R ed G uard s. “ S ourc e: C hin ese p atr io tic s o ng, w ritte n b y t h e P eo ple ’s L ib era tio n A rm y S ongs E dito ria l D ep artm en t , c a. 1 967 1 . W ho w ro te t h e s o ng, a n d W hy d o y ou t h in k t h e s o ng w as w ritte n ? 2 . W hat i s t h e m ain i d ea o f t h e s o ng? 3 . W hy m ig ht a y oung p ers o n i n 1 966 b e i n sp ir e d t o s in g t h is s o ng? D ocu m en ts C a n d D : P erso n al M em oir s D ocu m en t C “ W hen t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n b ro ke o ut i n l a te M ay 1 966, I f e lt l ik e t h e l e g en dary m onkey S un W ukong, f re ed f ro m t h e d ungeo n t h at h ad h eld h im u nder a h uge m ounta in f o r f iv e h undre d y ears . I t w as C hair m an M ao w ho s e t u s f re e b y a llo w in g u s t o r e b el a g ain st a u th oritie s. A s a s tu den t, t h e f ir s t a u th ority I w an te d t o r e b el a g ain st w as T each er L in , o ur h om ero om t e ach er. A b ig p art o f h er d uty w as t o m ak e s u re t h at w e b eh av ed a n d t h ought c o rre ctly . N ow t h e t im e h ad c o m e f o r t h e u nderd ogs t o s p eak u p, t o s e ek j u stic e! I m med ia te ly I t o ok u p a b ru sh p en , d ip ped i t i n b la ck i n k a n d w ro te a l o ng d azib ao ( p ro pag an da p oste r). U sin g s o m e o f t h e r h eto ric al d ev ic es T each er L in h ad t a u ght u s, I a ccu se d h er o f l a ck in g p ro le ta ria n ( w ork in g c la ss) f e elin g t o w ard h er s tu den ts , o f t r e atin g t h em a s h er e n em ie s, o f b ein g h ig h-h an ded , a n d o f s u ppre ssin g d if f e re n t o pin io ns. M y c la ssm ate s s u pporte d m e b y s ig nin g t h eir n am es t o i t. N ex t, w e t o ok t h e d azib ao t o T each er L in ’s h om e n earb y a n d p aste d i t o n t h e w all o f h er b ed ro om f o r h er t o r e ad c are fu lly d ay a n d n ig ht. T his , o f c o urs e , w as n ot p ers o nal r e v en ge. I t w as a n sw erin g C hair m an M ao ’s c all t o c o m bat t h e r e v is io nis t e d ucatio nal l in e. W ith in a f e w d ay s, d azib ao w ritte n b y s tu den ts , t e ach ers , a d m in is tr a to rs , w ork ers , a n d l ib ra ria n s, w ere p oppin g u p e v ery w here l ik e b am boo s h oots a fte r a s p rin g r a in . S ecre ts d ark a n d d ir ty w ere e x pose d . E very d ay w e m ad e s h ock in g d is c o verie s. T he s a cre d h alo a ro und t h e t e ach ers ’ h ead s t h at d ate d b ack t w o t h ousa n d f iv e h undre d y ears t o t h e t im e o f C onfu ciu s d is a p peare d . N ow t e ach ers m ust l e arn a f e w t h in gs f ro m t h eir s tu den ts . P are n ts w ould b e t a u ght b y t h eir k id s i n ste ad o f v ic e v ers a , a s C hair m an M ao p oin te d o ut. G overn m en t o ff ic ia ls w ould h av e t o w ash t h eir e ars t o l is te n t o t h e o rd in ary p eo ple … .” S ourc e: R ae Y oung ( m em ber o f t h e R ed G uard ), S pid er E ate rs: A M em oir , 1 997. D ocu m en t D “ I w as a 7 th g ra d er w hen t h e G re at C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n b ro ke o ut. G ro w in g u p i n t h e “ N ew C hin a” w e w ere f e d w ith r e v olu tio nary i d eas b ath ed i n t h e r e d s u nlig ht o f M ao . W e w ors h ip ed M ao t h e s a m e w ay p io us C hris tia n s w ors h ip t h eir G od, a n d w e w ere c o m ple te ly d ev ote d t o h im . I , m yse lf , r e ally b elie v ed t h at w e w ere w ork in g f o r a p ara d is e o n e arth , a n d w e w ere g oin g t o s a v e t h e e n tir e w orld . H ow g lo rio us i t w as t o h av e t h e g re at d estin y o f l ib era tin g a ll h um an ity ! I n f a ct, w e d id n ot e v en u nders ta n d w hat r e v olu tio n w as a n d h ow o th er p eo ple i n t h e w orld r e ally l iv ed … I w as n ot a llo w ed t o j o in t h e R ed G uard s s im ply b ecau se m y g ra n dpare n ts w ere r ic h b efo re t h e c o m munis ts t o ok a w ay t h eir l a n d, a n d m y p are n ts w ere c o nsid ere d “ in te lle ctu als ,” w hic h a u to m atic ally m ad e t h em a n ti- re v olu tio nis ts r e g ard le ss o f t h e f a ct t h at t h ey h ad b een f o llo w in g M ao ’s i d ealis m s in ce t h eir e arly a d ulth ood. A s m em bers o f t h e u niv ers ity f a cu lty , m y p are n ts w ere o bvio usly i n t r o uble . I , o f c o urs e , w as g uilty b y a sso cia tio n. O nly a 1 3-y ear- o ld g ir l, I b ecam e a t a rg et o f t h e r e v olu tio n. A fte r t h at, I l o st a ll m y f rie n ds a n d l iv ed i n p erp etu al f e ar f o r s e v era l y ears . D esp ite t h is u nbeara b le l if e , I d id n ot d are c h alle n ge m y b elie f i n t h e r e v olu tio n. I n ste ad , I w ondere d i f i t m ig ht b e m y p are n ts w ho h ad d one s o m eth in g w ro ng. I w ro te a d azib ao d en ouncin g t h em t o s h ow m y l o yalty t o M ao . M y n aiv ety d eep ly w ounded t h e f e elin gs b etw een m y p are n ts a n d m e. A s I g re w u p, I s lo w ly l e arn ed t h e t r u th b eh in d t h e s o -c alle d “ re v olu tio n.” I a ls o r e aliz ed t h at m y f a m ily a n d I w ere r e la tiv ely l u ck y c o m pare d w ith h undre d s a n d t h ousa n ds o f i n nocen t p eo ple w ho d ie d i n t h e e n dle ss p olitic al m ovem en ts . I a m v ery r e m ors e fu l, a n d I s till f e el s h ak en a s I t h in k b ack o n w hat h ap pen ed d urin g t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n.” S ourc e: F an C ao , U nder t h e R ed S un ( w ritte n a b out e x perie n ces d urin g t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n), 2 005 1 . H ow a re D ocu m en ts C a n d D s im ila r t y pes o f s o urc es? 2 . D o y ou f in d t h ese a cco unts r e lia ble ? W hy o r w hy n ot? E xpla in u sin g e v id en ce f ro m t h e d ocu m en ts . 3 . R ae D ong ( D oc C ) a n d F an C au ( D oc D ) b oth w ro te d azib ao . Y an g d en ounced h er t e ach er a n d F an d en ounced h er p are n ts . E xpla in o ne w ay t h at t h eir a ctio ns w ere s im ila r a n d o ne w ay t h at t h eir a ctio ns d iffe re d . 4 . A cco rd in g t o t h ese t w o d ocu m en ts , w hat a re s o m e r e aso ns w hy y oung p eo ple j o in ed t h e R ed G uard s? A naly sis ● P ro vid e t h re e r e aso ns w hy y ou b elie v e C hin ese y outh g ot s w ep t u p i n t h e C ultu ra l R ev olu tio n. ● E xpla in w heth er o r n ot y ou p erso n ally w ould e n dors e s u ch a m ovem en t i n t h e U nite d S ta te s. P le ase b e s p ecif ic a n d r e a lis tic .

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