Complete Intro, 3 plus columns/paragraph, Add at least One Counter-argument and refutation Conclusion. Follow what I am requesting in each box. In your introduction box, I am looking for a clear ide

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Follow what I am requesting in each box.  In your introduction box, I am looking for a clear idea for your “grabber” and a clear thesis statement.

Complete Intro, 3 plus columns/paragraph, Add at least One Counter-argument and refutation Conclusion. Follow what I am requesting in each box. In your introduction box, I am looking for a clear ide
1350L 2022 Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection Gale, part of Cengage Group Topic overview 1,868 words (Level 5) 1350LFull Text:  is a form of bullying that involves the use of electronic media to taunt, harass, or threaten others. It includes thedeliberate, repeated targeting of an individual to shame, intimidate, or degrade them and intentionally causing harm or coercing thevictim into doing something against their will or better judgment. While traditional bullying occurs through direct contact in a sharedphysical space such as the classroom or playground, cyberbullying takes place in online spaces or through the use of digital devices.Cyberbullying is similar to but distinct from , which refers to making inflammatory statements online to provoke a response fromothers. Trolls typically target groups and online communities more often than individuals, usually to garner attention rather than causeharm.Cyberbullying creates a challenging set of ethical and legal issues. As cyberbullying disproportionately affects adolescents and teens,school administrators widely acknowledge a degree of responsibility in protecting victims . However, most cyberbullying occursoutside school hours and takes place via media over which schools have no authority or control, so using school policies to disciplineperpetrators poses significant difficulty. Despite school policies and state laws criminalizing cyberbullying, the nature of onlinecommunication can make it challenging to prove a perpetrator’s identity. Cyberbullies may conceal themselves by using anonymousemail addresses, bogus social media accounts, or unregistered cell phone numbers. Cyberbullying often goes unpunished, even incases where the victim, parents, school, and law enforcement are reasonably certain of the bully’s identity.According to a National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) report published in 2021, more than 16 percent of students in gradesnine through twelve in 2019 reported being cyberbullied during the previous year. Surveys by the Cyberbullying Research Centerfound that 23.2 percent of children ages thirteen to seventeen reported experiencing recent cyberbullying victimization in 2021, amarked increase compared to 17.2 percent in 2019 and 16.7 percent in 2016. Researchers attributed the increase to adolescentsspending more time online. Data also indicated that the percentage of adolescents reporting cyberbullying exceeded the number ofthose reporting in-school bullying for the first time, a phenomenon attributed to the disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemicsuch as shifts to online classes during school closures. Main Ideas With the introduction and proliferation of digital, internet , and smartphone technologies, cyberbullying has emerged as anurgent concern in the first decades of the twenty-first century. Most adolescents report having experienced or observedcyberbullying.Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place in online spaces or through the use of digital devices. It involves the deliberate,repeated targeting of an individual to shame, intimidate, or degrade them; to cause harm; or to coerce the victim into doingsomething.All US states and the District of Columbia include cyberbullying or electronic attacks in their definitions of criminalharassment or in specific harassment laws. However, as of 2022 no federal law specifically addresses cyberbullying.Cyberbullying takes a serious toll on victims and may lead to declining academic performance, conflict with family members,and risky, illegal, or self-destructive behavior. In severe cases, victims may engage in self-harm, have suicidal ideation, andattempt or complete suicide .Cyberbullying affects online users of all ages, races, genders, religions, and economic classes. However, reports indicatesome disparities. For example, transgender youth are disproportionately victimized.The “well-connected bully” asserts dominance or authority as a way of protecting his or her social status, while the “isolatedbully” typically has problems identifying with others and may display a lack of empathy or succumb to peer pressure easily. Cyberbullying can take place in virtually any digital environment. As internet and connectivity technologies have expanded,cyberbullying has found its way into different forms, such as email, text, and online social networks . In 2020 students between agesten and eighteen reported cyberbullying most frequently on the social media sites YouTube , Snapchat, TikTok, and Instagram. Manyvideo game users convene in virtual spaces for gaming sessions, and the competitive nature of these communities can intensifycyberbullying behavior.Cyberbullies target victims through both and means. Overt forms include mocking, shaming, name-calling, andthreatening victims. Covert forms include isolating or excluding victims from participating in games, chats, or forums. Some advocacygroups separate cyberbullying into three types. involves person-to-person contact between the perpetrator andthe victim. occurs when a perpetrator tricks an unsuspecting third party into posting information or sendingcommunications meant to harm the victim. describes attempts to shame, embarrass, harass, or threaten thevictim in front of a wide audience, such as a social media network or multi-user online community.The phenomenon of , which is closely associated with cyberbullying, involves barraging a victim with a rapid succession ofhostile or confrontational content to provoke a specific emotional response, such as feelings of shame or rejection. Othercyberbullying tactics include sharing images, audio, video, or other content meant to embarrass or belittle the victim andimpersonating the victim online in an effort to harm their relationships, reputation, or social standing. involves publishingsomeone’s personal information, such as their address or phone number, online so that other people can harass them online oroffline. Some cyberbullies engage in behavior suggestive of stalking , such as sending communications indicating they know where avictim has been and what the victim has been doing. Perpetrators may also exploit the emotional vulnerability of their victims through , which involves the adoption of a fake online identity to lure a victim into a dangerous or hurtful situation.Cyberbullying researchers consider not only who is at increased risk of being bullied, but also how and why bullies become bullies.Children who bully frequently come from households with low levels of parental investment. They may struggle to follow rules, displayaggressive tendencies, become frustrated easily, or be part of a social group that actively bullies others. It is also fairly common forbullies to have been bullied themselves, or to be victims of other forms of physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional abuse . In2021 researchers from the University of Georgia released study results linking social media addiction and time spent online to thelikelihood that someone would engage in cyberbullying. The study also found that teenagers who identify as male were more likely tocommit cyberbullying than others.Psychologists divide bullies into two social subtypes: well-connected and isolated. The subtype assertsdominance or authority as a way of protecting his or her social status. In such cases, the bullying behavior is viewed by the bully asrewarding. The typically has problems identifying with others and may display a lack of empathy or understanding.Bullies of this subtype frequently have low self-esteem, have low levels of community investment, and easily succumb to peerpressure.Children are more likely to be bullied if they are different from their peers in appearance, personality, or disposition. Young people oflower socioeconomic status are also at increased risk of being victimized. Other risk indicators include low self-esteem, anxiety,depression , and social isolation . Experts also note that bullies may target someone simply because they perceive the person asincapable of self-defense. Research indicates that cyberbullying victimization most commonly occurs during the early teenage years,peaking at age fifteen and declining in frequency with age.In 2021 the Cyberbullying Research Center found disparities in cyberbullying victimization across several lines. Rates amongadolescents identifying as male (21.9 percent) and female (23.7 percent) experience comparable rates of cyberbullying. Amongstudents who identify as transgender, however, the rate was much higher (35.4 percent). Students who identified as heterosexualalso reported experiencing cyberbullying at a much lower rate (20.8 percent) than those who did not (31.7 percent).Cyberbullying can take a serious toll on victims and may lead to declining academic performance, tension and conflict with familymembers, and risky, illegal, or self-destructive behavior. Social withdrawal, uncharacteristic outbursts, and evasive explanations forunusually low online activity may also signal victimization. Victims of cyberbullying are at increased risk of developing anxiety anddepression. In severe cases, victims may engage in self-harm, have suicidal ideation, and even attempt or complete suicide. A 2018study published in the reported that young people who are repeatedly victimized bycyberbullying are up to two times more likely to attempt suicide or commit acts of self-harm than their non-bullied peers.The responsibility of addressing cyberbullying is multifaceted. Depending on specific circumstances, the task may involve parents,school educators and administrators, and law enforcement officials. Parents are expected to support victims and partner with schoolsand local authorities in preventing, intervening in, and reporting incidents of cyberbullying. Experts urge parents to watch forcyberbullying warning signs and monitor their children’s use of online media to ensure they do so safely and responsibly. Creatingclear rules regarding the use of smartphones and social media provides parents with an opportunity to have valuable discussionsabout safety and responsibility with their children. If cyberbullying occurs, victims should avoid escalation and begin documenting theactivity. If it continues, victims and parents should report it to school administrators or law enforcement. Many schools have created policies designed to address cyberbullying. Educators have developed protocols for dealing withsuspected and reported cases and created response strategies that depend on the extent, circumstances, and severity of each case.School interventions range from conflict resolution mediation and nonpunitive actions to suspension, expulsion, and policeinvolvement. However, schools may be somewhat limited if the cyberbullying does not occur on school grounds. Critical Thinking Questions What are the differences between direct, proxy, and public cyberbullying? What do you think is the best way for victims torespond to each type?How can understanding the characteristics and motivations of cyberbullying perpetrators help prevent cyberbullying fromoccurring? Explain your answer.In your opinion, should school policies regarding cyberbullying and online harassment extend to student behavior in off-campus locations? Why or why not?No federal law specifically addresses cyberbullying in the United States . However, the federal government must intervene whenharassment is motivated by bias against the victim’s race , ethnicity, national origin, disability, sex, or religion. Federal harassmentstatutes only apply if perpetrators physically travel across state lines with the intent to engage in harassing behaviors. Additionally,interstate communications are not subject to federal law unless they contain an expressed threat to kidnap or harm the victim.With the passage of an amendment to the Michigan penal code in 2018, all fifty US states and the District of Columbia had updatedtheir harassment laws and definitions of criminal harassment to include cyberbullying or electronic attacks or covered cyberbullyingunder specific laws. With the exception of Montana, all states mandate that public schools must create guidelines for identifying andintervening in both offline and online bullying. In over thirty states, school discipline policies do not extend to off-campus settings,limiting their applicability to cyberbullying. However, all US states have instituted some type of criminal sanction for cyberbullying,such as fines or jail time. In February 2022 California lawmakers introduced a bill that would require the companies that maintainwebsites, online applications, and other digital products used by students to provide users with the ability to report cyberbullying.Further, the bill would require these companies to resolve cyberbullying issues or suffer financial penalties. COPYRIGHT 2022 Gale, a Cengage Company (MLA 9th Edition)    “Cyberbullying.” , Gale, 2022. , . Accessed 6 Nov. 2022. GALE|PC3010999103
Complete Intro, 3 plus columns/paragraph, Add at least One Counter-argument and refutation Conclusion. Follow what I am requesting in each box. In your introduction box, I am looking for a clear ide
Essay Outline Worksheet Introduction – Catch Attention, Introduce Idea, Thesis/Essay Map Conclusion: Bring everything to a close, restate thesis in different way. Profound thought/conclusion

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