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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1 1 Literature Review Tania Gonzalez Diaz Grand Canyon University: NRS 433V April 27, 2017 Literature Review Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious event that greatly affects an individual’s ability to carry out normal functions. In extreme situations, TBI might also affect a person’s self esteem as well as cause him/her to sink into depression. The major issues that revolve around traumatic brain injuries (TBI) include loss of physical function, loss of self-awareness and self-esteem, depression, trauma and healing and support (Carroll & Coetzer, 2011). I chose this topic because it is important to explore the issues around TBI, which causes physical dysfunction, affecting one’s ability to work as well as to take good care of themselves. This topic is important to nursing as it helps to present the various interventions that would be effective in treating TBI patients. Practice Problem/Issue and PICOT Question The issue of TBI is important to consider in nursing because people who experience it often tend to lose their self-awareness and self-esteem, which significantly affects their ability to relate normally and freely with others. TBI events have a serious negative impact on personal and social lives of most of its victims. Therefore, it is important that care givers should have adequate knowledge on how to treat such TBI patients. Learning about this topic enables care givers to gain valuable knowledge on how to help TBI patients to regain physical function, to overcome trauma and depression, and to regain their self-esteem and self-awareness (Carroll & Coetzer, 2011). In the case of traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims, aged between 40 and 70 years with multiple co-morbidities, will individualized care involving transitions from hospital to home environment, compared to hospitalized treatment, help to overcome depression and loss of physical activity over a period of 6 months. Carroll, E., & Coetzer, R. (2011). Identity, grief and self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 21(3), 289-305. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2011.555972 Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate perceived identity change in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore associations between identity change, grief, depression, self-esteem and self-awareness. The participants were 29 adults with TBI who were being followed up by a community brain injury rehabilitation service. Participants were longer post-injury than those more commonly studied. Time since injury ranged from 2.25 to 40 years (mean = 11.17 years, SD = 11.4 years). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires. Significant others and clinicians completed a parallel version of one of these measures. Questionnaires included the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISDS-III), Brain Injury Grief Inventory (BIGI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Depression, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Awareness Questionnaire (Self/Significant other/Clinician versions). The main findings were that participants reported significant changes in self-concept with current self being viewed negatively in comparison to pre-injury self. Perceived identity change was positively associated with depression and grief and negatively associated with self-esteem and awareness. Awareness was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with depression. These findings were consistent with previous research, revealing changes in identity following TBI. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of the psychological factors involved in emotional adjustment after TBI and to inform brain injury rehabilitation interventions, including psychotherapy approaches. Conneeley, A. L. (2012). Transitions and brain injury: A qualitative study exploring the journey of people with traumatic brain injury. Brain Impairment, 13(1), 72-84. Abstract This qualitative study aimed to explore transitions from hospital to the home over a period of one year. Methods and procedures: A longitudinal, phenomenological approach was employed and 18 individuals with severe traumatic brain injury, their family members and rehabilitation professionals were interviewed using semi structured interviews, when the person with brain injury was discharged from the ward, after 6 months and again after one year. Results: Themes identified within the data included returning home, getting back to normal, moving forward and the role of rehabilitation in the transitional period. Further subthemes were also identified including issues of life-course disruption, self-identity, status and reconstruction. Conclusions: Data suggested that access to rehabilitation programs employing individualized, contextual interventions following discharge to the home were integral in enabling the transition through to autonomy and independence. Consideration of issues of identity and status can enable a different and potentially important perspective on the experience of transitions for those with brain injury. Reclaiming personal autonomy and control appeared to be central to the reconstruction of a coherent sense of self, enabling a meaningful life after brain injury. Douglas, J. M. (2012). Conceptualizing self and maintaining social connection following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 27(1), 60-74. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2012.722254 Abstract Primary objective: To explore how adults who have sustained severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) conceptualize self-several years after injury. Design: Self-conceptualization was explored from the perspective of the injured individual within a constructivist Grounded Theory approach using in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis moved through a process of data-driven open and focused coding, identification of emergent self-related categories and exploration of relations between these categories. Participants: Sixteen men and four women with severe–very severe injury participated in the study. Severity of injury was indexed by either a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤8 or duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) ≥14 days. At the time of interview, the average age of participants was 35.2 years and a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since injury. Main outcomes and results: Three main themes emerged from the data. The first two themes together described a model of self-concept. The third theme captured the insider’s perspective on factors that had helped to create and maintain a sense of connection between self and society. Conclusion: Conceptualization of self after brain injury is a dynamic and multi-faceted process. Insight into the process can guide the development of therapeutic endeavours to facilitate the ongoing construction of self after severe TBI. Haneef, Z., Levin, H. S., Frost, J. D., & Mizrahi, E. M. (2013). Electroencephalography and quantitative electroencephalography in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(8), 653–656. http://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2012.2585 Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes brain injury resulting in electrophysiologic abnormalities visible in electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) makes use of quantitative techniques to analyze EEG characteristics such as frequency, amplitude, coherence, power, phase, and symmetry over time independently or in combination. QEEG has been evaluated for its use in making a diagnosis of mTBI and assessing prognosis, including the likelihood of progressing to the post concussive syndrome (PCS) phase. We review the EEG and qEEG changes of mTBI described in the literature. An attempt is made to separate the findings seen during the acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases after mTBI. Brief mention is also made of the neurobiological correlates of qEEG using neuroimaging techniques or in histopathology. Although the literature indicates the promise of qEEG in making a diagnosis and indicating prognosis of mTBI, further study is needed to corroborate and refine these methods. Johansson, B., Bjuhr, H., & Rönnbäck, L. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) improves long-term mental fatigue after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 26(13-14), 1621-1628. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2012.700082 Abstract Objective: Patients who suffer from mental fatigue after a stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a drastically reduced capacity for work and for participating in social activities. Since no effective therapy exists, the aim was to implement a novel, non-pharmacological strategy aimed at improving the condition of these patients. Methods: This study tested a treatment with mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). The results of the programme were evaluated using a self-assessment scale for mental fatigue and neuropsychological tests. Eighteen participants with stroke and 11 with TBI were included. All the subjects were well rehabilitated physically with no gross impairment to cognitive functions other than the symptom mental fatigue. Fifteen participants were randomized for inclusion in the MBSR programme for 8 weeks, while the other 14 served as controls and received no active treatment. Those who received no active treatment were offered MBSR during the next 8 weeks. Results: Statistically significant improvements were achieved in the primary end-point—the self-assessment for mental fatigue—and in the secondary end-point—neuropsychological tests; Digit Symbol-Coding and Trail Making Test.Conclusion: The results from the present study show that MBSR may be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for mental fatigue after a stroke or TBI. Levack, W. M. M., Kayes, N. M., & Fadyl, J. K. (2010). Experience of recovery and outcome following traumatic brain injury: A metasynthesis of qualitative research. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(12), 986-999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638281003775394 Abstract Purpose: To explore the use of qualitative metasynthesis to inform debate on the selection of outcome measures for evaluation of services provided to adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Fifteen databases were searched for qualitative research published between 1965 and June 2009, investigating the lived experience of recovery following TBI acquired during adulthood. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts. Included studies were evaluated using methodological criteria to provide a context for interpretation of substantive findings. Data were extracted and synthesised by three reviewers, using QSR NVivo to assist with data management. Results: From 23 studies, eight inter-related themes were identified to describe the enduring experience of TBI: 1) mind/body disconnect; 2) disconnect with pre-injury identity; 3) social disconnect; 4) emotional sequelae; 5) internal and external resources; 6) reconstruction of self-identity; 7) reconstruction of a place in the world; 8) reconstruction of personhood. Conclusion: Currently, there are outcome measures for some but not all of the issues identified in qualitative research on surviving TBI. In particular, new outcome measures may be required to evaluate experiences of loss of personal identity, satisfaction with reconstructed identity and sense of connection with one’s body and one’s life following TBI.
Top of Form Apply Rubrics Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations 1Unsatisfactory0.00% 2Less than Satisfactory75.00% 3Satisfactory83.00% 4Good94.00% 5Excellent100.00% 75.0 %Content 15.0 % Background of Study Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is incomplete. Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is included but lacks relevant details and explanation. Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation. Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is complete and includes relevant details and explanation. Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation. 15.0 % Method of Study Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is incomplete. Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is included but lacks relevant details and explanation. Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation. Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is complete and includes relevant details and explanation. Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation. 15.0 % Results of Study Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is incomplete. Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is included but lacks relevant details and explanation. Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation. Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is complete and includes relevant details and explanation. Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation. 15.0 % Ethical Considerations Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is incomplete. Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is included but lacks relevant details and explanation. Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation. Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is complete and includes relevant details and explanation. Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation. 15.0 % Conclusion Conclusion does not summarize a critical appraisal and applicability of findings. Conclusion is vague and does not discuss importance to nursing. Conclusion summarizes utility of the research and importance to nursing practice. Conclusion summarizes utility of the research from the critical appraisal and the findings importance to nursing practice. Conclusion summarizes utility of the research from the critical appraisal, knowledge learned, and the importance of the findings to nursing practice. 15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness 5.0 % Thesis Development and Purpose Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. 5.0 % Argument Logic and Construction Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Argument is clear and convincing and presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative. 5.0 % Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. 10.0 %Format 5.0 % Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct. 5.0 % Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error. 100 % Total Weightage Bottom of Form
Running head: PAPER TITLE HERE 1 (no more than 50 characters (including the term Running head: and spaces) of your actual paper title) The Title of Your Paper Belongs Here Student A. Sample Grand Canyon University: NRS 433V Month day, 2016 **Note – be sure to change Red font to Black The Title of Your Paper Belongs Here Summary of Article Topic At minimum 4 complete sentences – should identify the name(s) of the authors here (i.e. – In the article by Jones and Smith (2012) the authors state…..) Background of the Study Method of Study Results of the Study Ethical Considerations Conclusion References Examples of correctly documented sources (delete prior to submission of paper) Grand Canyon University. (2012). Research ethics and evaluating quantitative research [Lecture 3]. In Introduction to nursing research. Retrieved from https://lc-ugrad1.gcu.edu/ learningPlatform/ Grove, S., Gray, J., & Burns, N. (2015). Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/9781455770601/pages/177890842 Stillwell, S., Fineout-Overhault, E., Melnyk, B., & Williamson, K. (2010). Evidence-based practice, step by step: Asking the clinical question: A key step in evidence-based practice. American Journal of Nursing, 110(3), 58-61. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://gateway.ovid.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&AN=00000446-201003000-00028&LSLINK=80&D=ovft