- Address the following in a literature review of 2 pages:
Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System is selected for this assignment. Explain.
- How did you select the topic that you are researching? Explain.
- Now, select 8–10 scholarly sources, and conduct a literature review for this second topic.
Address the following in 1–2 pages:
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- Why is this topic important to the criminal justice system and the citizens of the United States? Explain.
What are the various topic issues, problems, or policies associated with your selected topic? Explain in detail.
- What do you propose as the changes to these topic issues, problems, and policies? Explain in detail.
- Defend your changes with articulated support from legitimate peer-reviewed reference sources. This is absolutely critical for your paper to be taken seriously.
- Tip: The defense of your paper cannot be stressed enough. You must take care to support factual statements with valid reference material.
- Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
Assignment Guidelines Address the following in a literature review of 2 pages:Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System is selected for this assignment. Explain. How did you select the topic that
Topic 2: Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System Numerous offenders have a history of mental health issues, and it is likely that they will commit additional offenses in the future if they do not receive adequate treatment (Rucker & Richeson, 2021). People with mental illness who are involved in the criminal justice system must have access to diversion programs that provide treatment instead of incarceration. To resolve this issue, it is also essential to implement policies that increase access to mental health services such as counseling and medication management. Annotated Bibliography Farahmand, P., Arshed, A., & Bradley, M. V. (2020). Systemic racism and substance use disorders. Psychiatric Annals, 50(11), 494-498. This study will aid in my comprehension of systemic racism in the United States and its effects on the health of Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people. To address this public health issue, psychiatrists must be aware of racial variations in substance use disorders. This essay first analyzes racial disparities in substance abuse disorders. Forrester, A., & Hopkin, G. (2019). Mental health in the criminal justice system: A pathways approach to service and research design. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health : CBMH, 29(4), 207–217. https://doi-org.coloradotech.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/cbm.2128 The researchers demonstrate how offenders have a disproportionately high prevalence of mental illness, making health treatment in jail vital. Although there are organized procedures to assure this, factual evidence is missing. Isabella D’Orta, Herrmann, F. R., & Giannakopoulos, P. (2022). Prison inmates with court-ordered treatments: are they really different? Annals of General Psychiatry, 21, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-022-00382-6 This research shows that in jails, mental illness is linked to violence, abuse, and self-harm. There are more mentally ill people in prisons than in psychiatric institutes, but they are not identified or treated. Even though the legislation differs, there are two basic approaches to dealing with mentally ill criminals throughout Europe. Volunteer psychiatric visits assist criminally responsible individuals in receiving mental health care. This population may get significant mental health therapy in psychiatric facilities or, in exceptional cases, in prison psychiatric units. Brooker, C., & Coid, J. (2022). Mental health services are failing the criminal justice system. BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online), 376https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-069776 The recent study by Her Majesty’s Inspectorates of Constabulary, Prisons, and Probation shows that mental health services in England and Wales are letting down the criminal justice system in a big way.1 The report finds that information isn’t shared well at every step of the criminal justice process. Mental health services are reluctant to share information because of privacy concerns, even though it’s legal to do so. Criminal justice staff aren’t getting enough training, support, or advice, and court reports don’t pay enough attention to mental health or don’t mention it at all. But by far the biggest problem is getting good mental health care and treatment, which has become harder since the covid-19 outbreak began. Castillo, P. (2020). Psychological perspectives for addressing mental health within the criminal justice system. https://journals.csu.domains/index.php/salusjournal/article/view/114 Following on from our previous article on treatment assessment, our second study looks at Jail to Community Medication-Assisted Treatment (JTCMAT) programs for drug misuse that are extensively employed in the United States. This qualitative research offers a unique and in-depth examination of the program’s perceived strengths and drawbacks from the perspectives of end users and service providers. Examining end-user and service provider lived experiences provides a novel but critical knowledge of treatment success. The writers, Michele Bratina, Michael Antonio, Mary Brewster, and Jacqueline Carsello, also provide realistic techniques that might help shape the creation of successful drug misuse and recidivism programs and policies. McLeod, M., Heller, D., Manze, M. G., & Echeverria, S. E. (2019). Police Interactions and the Mental Health of Black Americans: a Systematic Review. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 7(1), 10–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-019-00629-1 Black Americans make up 13% of the US population but 23% of police-related fatalities. Black non-lethal police contacts may cause emotional trauma, stress, and depression, but data is few. This comprehensive literature analysis examines if Black American police contacts affect mental health. 11 publications were examined using pre-defined criteria. Eight studies were rated fair, two poor, and one excellent using a quality evaluation technique. Participants reported police use of force during arrest, police stops, police searches, police murders, court encounters with police, and other mental health effects. Most of the studies (6 of 11) reviewed found statistically significant associations between police interactions and mental health (psychotic experiences, psychological distress, depression, PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation and attempts). Although greater research are required, police contacts may be linked to mental health issues. Changes in law enforcement policy, development and implementation of a validated instrument for police experiences, improved community outreach, a federally mandated review of police policy and practice, and expanded police training could reduce the potential mental health impact of police interactions on Black Americans. DeVylder, J. E., Fedina, L., & Link, B. G. (2020). Impact of Police Violence on Mental Health: A Theoretical Framework. American Journal of Public Health, 110(11), 1704–1710. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2020.305874 The purpose of this article is to identify possible elements that may separate police violence from other types of violence and trauma exposure, as well as to investigate the likelihood that a unique combination of factors distinguishes police violence from comparable risk exposures. We find eight variables that may affect this association, including those that increase the risk of overall exposure, enhance the psychological effect of police aggression, and restrict the potential of dealing with or recovering from such exposures. Among these factors are those that increase the likelihood of overall exposure. Porter, L. C., & DeMarco, L. (2018). Beyond the dichotomy: Incarceration dosage and mental health*. Criminology, 57(1), 136–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12199 According to the conclusions of a growing corpus of research, imprisonment is harmful to both physical and mental health. Incarceration, on the other hand, is often viewed and operationalized as a binary; persons are either jailed or not. Given that imprisonment might vary from a single day to many years, a dichotomous measure may miss substantial differences across periods of exposure. Furthermore, the majority of offenders are jailed many times. In this research, we examine the connection with imprisonment dose, as assessed by time served and number of stints, and mental health in a sample of young people from the National Longitudinal research of Youth 1997. Using fixed-effects modeling, we discover that the number of spells and months spent in prison are connected to mental health symptoms and the chance of depression. However, the connection is conditional on whether a person is now or formerly jailed. More time spent is predicted to enhance mental health among present convicts, while the number of periods has little effect on either result.