1. The Importance of High Quality Materials Article Review Power Point
JUST COMPLETE INFORMATION TO PUT ON SLIDE 5. THE REST ARE ALREADY DONE. THANKS
Teachers desire great instructional materials that get students excited to learn. Below is a list of studies, reports, and briefs that demonstrate the lasting effect high-quality materials have on students. This article list was originally compiled by Nebraska and published on the Nebraska Instructional Materials Collaborative site. Nebraska is one of the eight states in the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Instructional Materials and Professional Development Network. Research blurbs were paraphrased or copied from report abstracts or summaries.
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Here are the articles from the website, Evidence – Mississippi Instructional Materials Matter (msinstructionalmaterials.org)Links to an external site.
High Quality Instructional Materials Articles
See the following table for the article assigned to you:
Once you thoroughly read the article, you are required to create a MAXIMUM five slide powerpoint.
Slide one: Your name and the APA citation of the article
Slides two-four: Key outcomes from the article
*****Slide five: your response to the article and how it may help a teacher research their “passion”*****
2. Discussion Board #5 6200
Chapter two, you identified your top two passions to begin the research process. Keep those two in mind as you complete the discussion board.
Top 2 Passions
· Advocating for Equity and Social Justice
· 1Helping an Individual Child
Reread the last paragraph on page 119 through the bottom of page 121. Describe the structure you would use for journaling. What questions would you ask yourself daily as you continue to collect data from students? What data patterns are you looking for? What time of day would you journal? How long do you think is an adequate amount of time to journal in order to capture the data you need?
Each question must serve as a header for your response.
Bottom of Form
3. Discussion Board #4 EDU 6600
Research indicates that good discipline is best achieved by putting proactive measures in place. Over and over, research has shown that disciplinary techniques such as suspension is not effective in managing and preventing behavioral issues. Many schools have embraced the use of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports which emphasize recognizing students for engaging in desired behaviors and stresses the importance of having school-wide involvement. By shaping desired behavior and focusing on appropriate behavior, students experience success and a much more positive culture within the school setting is created.
In 200-300 words discuss the types of discipline utilized at your school. Are the positive behavioral supports in place to promote appropriate student behavior? Does you school use suspension? corporal punishment? Does your school teach expected and appropriate behavior and allow students to practice?
After you post, respond to 2 classmates in 100-200 words.
1. The Importance of High Quality Materials Article Review Power Point JUST COMPLETE INFORMATION TO PUT ON SLIDE 5. THE REST ARE ALREADY DONE. THANKS Teachers desire great instructional material
Connecting Curriculum & Professional Learning in Schools APRIL 2017 Practice What You TEACH By Ross Wiener and Susan Pimentel The Aspen Education & Society Program improves public education by inspiring, informing, and influencing education leaders across policy and practice, with an emphasis on achieving equity for traditionally underserved students. For more information, visit www.aspeninstitute.org/education and www.aspendrl.org. The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, DC. Its mission is to foster leadership based on enduring values and to provide a nonpartisan venue for dealing with critical issues. The Institute is based in Washington, DC; Aspen, Colorado; and on the Wye River on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. It also has offices in New York City and an international network of partners. Copyright © 2017 by The Aspen Institute The Aspen Institute • One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 700 • Washington, DC 20036 Published in the United States of America in 2017 by The Aspen Institute All rights reserved Practice What You TEACH Connecting Curriculum & Professional Learning in Schools APRIL 2017 By Ross Wiener and Susan Pimentel 1 Introduction 2 Part 1. Research Supports Linking Curriculum and Professional Learning 4 Part II. Profiles of Promising Practice 5 Part III. Key Takeaways and Recommendations for System Leaders 12 Conclusion 15 Acknowledgments 16 About the Authors 16 Endnotes 17 Contents Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 2 A primar y role of school systems is to create the conditions in schools through which teachers can become exper ts at teaching the curriculum they are using and adapting instruction to the needs of their par ticular students. Introduction To improve teaching and advance student learning requires weaving togethe r the curriculum that students engage with every day with the professional learning of teachers. This paper describes t he research supporting this argument, profiles three examples of educators integra ting curriculum with professional learning, and provides key takeaways for state, district, and school lea ders. The recent adoption of college- and career-ready standards in almost every state raises the bar for student learning. Students are expected to actively engage with one another, wrestle with rigorous and often unfamiliar content, and persevere in addressing tough problems. 1 These shifts demand new instructional materials and more sophisticated, adaptive teaching. Moreover, these elevated expectations are coming online when more than half of public school students receive free or reduced-price meals (indicating low levels of family income) and the fastest-growing group of students is English-language learners 2 – groups of students that teachers and schools traditionally have struggled to educate well. 3 All of this makes it essential to establish systems that support teacher learning so teachers can more effectively advance student learning. Yet current practice divorces the “what” of curriculum from the “how” of professional learning, which undermines the efficacy of both. 4 A primary role of school systems – states, districts, and charter-management organizations (CMOs) – is to create the conditions in schools through which teachers can become experts at teaching the curriculum they are using and adapting instruction to the needs of their particular students. Integrating professional learning and curriculum into a holistic approac h for improving teaching and learning is an important element of meeting the goal of educating all students and giving teachers the support they need to become expert practitioners. 5 How to Use This Paper This paper addresses the need for system leaders to integrate curriculum into professional learning so teachers can focus on their essential roles: creating engaging learning environments and delivering excellent instruction, assessing and responding to the demonstrated needs of their students, and continuously improving their craft. 6 Most schools and districts already have expert educators who are eager and willing to learn, but they typically don’t have in place the systems, structures, and cultures under which excellent professional learning takes place and occurs at scale. This is, in part, because systems pursue the work in schools disc retely; one office selects and supports curriculum, while multiple other offices focus on professional learnin g activities – and each office or division has separate budgets, timelines, accountabilities, and often separate an d distinct approaches to “supporting” schools. No high-performing education system in the world operates in similarly siloed fashi on; other countries intertwine their curriculum and professional learning efforts. 7 Integrating Curriculum into Professional Learning Continuously improve teaching craft Assess and respond to the demonstrated needs of students Create engaging learning environments and deliver excellent instruction Aspen Institute 3 FACILITATING ADULT LEARNING TO ADVANCE STUDENT LEARNING The fastest way to make professional learning relevant for teachers is to put their school’s curriculum and related evidence of student learning at its heart. But it’s still only one piece of a comprehensive professional learning system, whose goal must be improved outcomes for students. In the coming months, the Aspen Institute’s Education & Society Program will release a series of papers on How to Facilitate Adult Learning to Advance Student Learning, starting with a proposed framework for a professional learning system. A professional learning system tightly integrates multiple, often siloed structures and initiatives – from school design and resource allocation, to the selection and use of instructional materials, to how educators are hired, compensated, and promoted – so that those up and down the system are focused on improving adult learning in order to improve student learning. This means, for example, that school principals must know how to create a culture of learning among their faculty; that principal supervisors need to support and hold principals accountable for growing the knowledge and skills of their teachers, not just their students; and that central office staff members, whether in the curriculum, assessment, human resources, or finance department, need to prioritize and be held accountable for supporting the work of adult learning in schools. Embracing a systemic approach presents a significant challenge in a public education sector replete with numerous, loosely coordinated initiatives. But for teachers to practice what they teach, the entire system must focus on facilitating the time, resources, support, and collaborative inquiry process that will, in turn, facilitate powerful learning for students. This paper is designed as a resource for system leaders at the district, state, and CMO levels looking to improve instructional outcomes for students by improving teacher development in their schools. Part I briefly describes the research base for this argument. Part II examines three cases of innovative practice and identifies ways in which a state department, a district, and a group of enterprising teachers are leading positive change efforts. Part III identifies key considerations and enabling conditions system leaders should prioritize when organizing professional learning around high-quality curriculum. Most schools and districts already have exper t educators who are eager and willing to learn, but they typically don’t have in place the systems, structures, and cultures under which excellent professional learning takes place and occurs at scale. Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 4 Research Supports Linking Curriculum and Professional Learning This paper builds on several key research findings: zz First, schools and school systems already make massive investments in te achers’ and school leaders’ professional learning, yet most professional learning activities are not meeting teachers’ needs and lack measurable results on changing practice or improving outcomes for studen ts. 8 zz Second, curriculum materials have a profound effect on what happens in c lassrooms and on how much students learn. 9 When average teachers use excellent materials, student learning results improve significantly. 10 Research also documents that many teachers do not have access to strong , standards- aligned curriculum; in fact, most teachers spend hours every week searching for materials that haven’t been vetted and aren’t connected to ongoing, professional learning activities in their school s. 11 Ensuring teachers have high-quality, rigorous materials is an effective and affordable tool for improving s tudent learning outcomes at scale. 12 zz Third, teaching expertise is the most important factor in school effecti veness; schools cannot be more successful than their teachers. Developing teacher expertise is intellec tually demanding, professional work – it takes study, practice, and critical feedback to develop into an expert teacher. 13 Teachers deserve both materials and professional learning experiences that address the de cisions they are making with their students in the context of the actual materials they are using . Providing teachers with generic strategies divorced from their day-to-day reality makes it less likely teachers wil l apply what they learn to improve practice or student outcomes. 14 zz Finally, adults learn best when they are engaged in a collegial process that draws on and values their experience as a resource in the learning process. 15 Taken together, these findings suggest a powerful strategy for improving support to teachers: design professional learning activities that build off of and deepen teachers’ knowledge for enacting the curriculum used in their school. This is not the same as offering orientation to new curriculum materials, although this may be one component. The vision is one of fully integrating chosen curriculum into ongoing, job-embedded professional learning and development. It is a deceivingly simple and powerful strategy that system leaders can pursue, requiring smart planning, resource reallocation, and learning from experience to continuously impr ove. Done right, professional learning linked to curriculum can lead to transformational changes in te aching and learning. Done right, professional learning linked to curriculum can lead to transformational changes in teaching and learning. PART I Aspen Institute 5 Profiles of Promising Practice The three learning communities showcased below – a state-based effort , a district-led initiative, and an ensemble of dedicated teachers – are already pursuing the strategy of integrating curriculum materials with professional learning. LOUISIANA’S DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Making the Best Thing to Do the Easiest Thing to Do Louisiana illustrates the power and subtlety of a state-led effort. Reco gnizing the state had limited authority, but also seeing a clear need for higher quality materials and related pr ofessional learning, leaders at the Louisiana Department of Education (LDOE) designed a “pull” strat egy. LDOE provided district leaders with valuable information about the quality of curriculum materials, streamli ned the procurement process for highly rated materials and services, and engaged teachers as advisors who ultimately became ambassador s to other teachers across the state. All of this has contributed to dramatic uptake of better materials and services – and dramatic gains for the students of Louisiana. Louisiana’s “Pull” Strategy In 2012, the LDOE identified two actions that would dramatically accel erate its efforts to improve student outcomes. First, research confirmed that the state could increase the number of teachers using high-quality curricular resources. This also would advance equity because more studen ts would interact regularly with better texts and richer tasks. Second, LDOE realized that teachers acros s the state needed to become partners in the effort to bring more rigorous curriculum to the classroo m or there would be no systematic, sustainable improvements in student learning. The state made it clear that not just any curriculum would do. Its curriculum effort was notable for its transparency and the extremely high bar set for standards alignment. LDOE staff members and local teachers reviewed hundreds of programs using a rigorous evaluation rubric built on the Instructional Materials Evaluation Tool. 16 LDOE publicly posted the reviews on its website. Only two math programs received a Tier 1 ranking of full alignment with the standards, with the majority ca tegorized as Tier 3, indicating they were not aligned. Because no full English language arts programs receive d a Tier 1 rating, teacher leaders joined with LDOE staff members and Common Core experts at LearnZillion t o produce a complete ELA curriculum, which also provided the opportunity to prioritize themes and texts that reflect Louisiana’s culture. 17 The curriculum is now freely available online at the Louisiana Departme nt of Education website (go check it out!). 18 PART II Louisiana’s curriculum effor t was notable for its transparency and the extremely high bar set for standards alignment. BETTER RESULTS FOR STUDENTS Provide district leaders with valuable information about the quality of curriculum materials Streamline the procurement process for highly rated materials and services Engage teachers as advisors who ultimately become ambassadors to other teachers across the state Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 6 LDOE also made Tier 1-rated curriculum materials attractive by removing logistical and a dministrative barriers that might have prevented districts from purchasing them. The a gency signed statewide contracts with vendors whose materials received the highest ratings. This circumve nted the need for districts to go through time-consuming local procurement processes that often make co nsiderations like cost or administrative burden the determining factor rather than quality. State officials at the LDOE recognized that simply making high-quality curriculum available was not enough to ensure high-quality educational experiences for students. So LDOE con vened approximately 50 teacher leaders from across the state to experience firsthand the quality of t he Tier 1 materials, based on a belief that personal experience would lead these teachers to demand the best wh en they returned to their districts, which is what happened. Something else happened as well. Word quickly spread about the value of LDOE’s materials and training, leading to a groundswell of teachers asking for similar experiences. Ins pired by the success with a small group of teacher leaders, LDOE issued a call to districts to send one te acher from every school to state- sponsored trainings. From November 2012 to April 2013, the LDOE went fro m supporting a cadre of 50 teacher leaders to working with 5,000 teacher leaders from across the st ate through a series of regional and annual summits. LDOE invested in the original corps of teachers to build and deliver training in how to use the highly rated materials to their best advantage. LDOE staff members also developed a guidebook of professional development providers who really understood what mattered when integrating high- quality professional learning with high-quality materials. The initial group of providers were experts on Tier 1 rated curriculum like Great Minds and Eureka math, and understood the state’s non-negotiables. Since then, the state has expanded the list to about 30 providers (updated annually). LDOE then used its summits to “test drive” the professional development offered by select vendors in front of a committ ed audience. This in turn made district personnel smarter about whom to hire. To further facilitate the uptake of high-quality professional learning pr actices, LDOE negotiated with highly rated professional development providers in a process similar to that us ed with the publishers of high- quality materials, making it easier for districts to procure services that were specifically aligned to Tier 1 curriculum. Districts appreciated the vetting that went into this proces s, while they retained choice over how to implement professional learning that best fits their local situatio n. Rapides Parish School District is an illuminating example. For an urban district of nearly 50 schools and close to 25,000 students, shifting to a standards-based math curriculum was no easy task. But the district didn’t have to go at it alone: district leaders found the curriculum ratings provided by the LDOE intuitive and easy to use, sparing them the burden of evaluating numerous programs on their own. Discovering the pre-existing state contracts with vendors was another boon, which al lowed the district to acquire and implement a new math curriculum much faster than previously. But the benefits of the LDOE effort for Rapides Parish didn’t end there. The LDOE helped the district facilitate professional learning for teachers before every instructional module. The day-long training teachers received made the standards-based curriculum both relevant and immediately applicable. Teachers saw its value and gained a more sophisticated understanding of what teac hing the Louisiana standards looked like in action. In its materials, the state included procedures f or developing and demonstrating sample lessons, a facet teachers singled out as especially valuable. The district superintendent concluded that the collaborative approach with the state significantly improved the i nstructional practice of district teachers and ensured that all students were given access to high-quality educatio nal experiences. Word quickly spread about the value of LDOE’s materials and training, leading to a groundswell of teachers asking for similar experiences. Aspen Institute 7 Feedback from the trainings facilitated by the LDOE is overwhelmingly positive: 85 percent to 90 percent of attendees feel what they are learning applies directly to what they need to teach in the classroom. According to the RAND Corporation, many more Louisiana teachers are using material s judged to be aligned with the Common Core standards than teachers in other states, and Louisiana teachers far outpace teachers in other states in understanding the instructional shifts the standards expect. 19 Louisiana also is seeing impressive gains in student achievement, including greater gains in NAEP 4th grade reading scores in 2015 than any other state; Louisiana also had the biggest gain of any mandatory ACT state that year. 20 Because of the long tradition of local control in Louisiana, the role the LDOE adopted in Rapides Parish and elsewhere is a supporting one. LDOE exerts no control over what districts choose to do; there is no quid pro quo expected in exchange for accepting the training and other guidance offered by the state. But by making the highest quality route also the easiest rout e, and serving as a helpful support to districts as they tackle this hard work, LDOE is seen as a credible part ner in the effort to improve teachers’ professional learning. The success the state has enjoyed stems in no sma ll part from its willingness to accept the role of facilitator instead of director. As a result, there has been very little pushback on the part of teachers, although deep and sustained improvements in teacher practice are still a work in progress. Louisiana has embraced a clear and unambiguous philosophy summed up by a member of the LDOE: “Make the best stuff the easiest stuff for teachers to use, and they will come, learn, and go back to their home districts and train.” DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS LEAP Into School-based Professional Learning Several years ago, the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) had reached a crossroads. Leaders there had spent years getting basic operations right, attracting and retaining great talent, holding educators accountable for results, and boosting pay for top performers. DCPS was the fastest-improving urban district based on NAEP scores, yet leaders knew that despite this remarkable progress, they had a long way to go for students — and that “more of the same” would not meet the chall enge. This is the story of how a district-led effort is transforming professional learning by providing teachers with great teaching materials and the time and training to develop expertise in using those materials. In 2011, DCPS began working with its teachers to build “Cornerstones, ” a set of 260 rich, rigorous tasks and related instructional materials embedded in the district’s scope and sequence across all core content areas. 21 Cornerstones allowed DCPS to ensure all students engaged with rich, sta ndards-aligned work at least once in each subject every quarter, and it signaled the level of rigor DCPS expected throughout the curriculum. In addition, Cornerstones created a context for common profe ssional learning experiences that both prepared teachers for standards-aligned instruction and leveraged s tudent work products as teaching tools for teachers. What started as a series of loose units of study gre w by 2015 into a solid knowledge-based humanities curriculum centered on authentic, interconnected texts and ta sks in every grade. Requiring all teachers to use the same curriculum they helped develop wa s a revolutionary step. Because so many students needed to accelerate learning, DCPS saw the curriculum and embedded tasks as one important way to ensure a baseline of rigorous instruction. This was onl y a first step, however; DCPS knew that curriculum change was necessary but not sufficient for improving student learning. Formal and informal classroom observations showed that the most prevalent instructional model was teachers dispensing knowledge akin to a tennis volley (teacher hits, students respond, teac her hits, etc.); in contrast, college- and By making the highest quality route the easiest route, and ser ving as a helpful suppor t to districts, LDOE is seen as a credible par tner in the effor t to improve teachers’ professional learning. Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 8 career-ready instruction demands more active engagement and interaction among students. DCPS decided to tackle this issue head-on through an overarching, districtwide goal: to provide teachers with the time and support to become experts in teaching the new high-quality curriculum DC PS had adopted. At the same time the curriculum work was maturing, DCPS was investing in teacher leadership as part of its human capital strategy. With the help of Leading Educators, a non-profit focused on developi ng teacher leaders, DCPS began recruiting and training teacher leaders with the goa l of retaining more highly effective teachers. 22 In 2015, DCPS first connected curriculum development to professional learning, explicitly linking what was taught with how it was taught. Dipping its toe into the water of a district-centered professional learning system provided DCPS with the confidence to move forward even more boldly the next year by embedding the training within each school. DCPS launched LEAP ( Le arning Together to Advance our Practice), and succinctly articulated the goal in the district’s handbook: “Our hope is that LEAP helps us become known as the distr ict where you learn to become an expert at your craft.” Teacher leaders, whose ranks had been growing in DCPS, became a critical resource in this work. The professional learning embedded in LEAP is based on a weekly learning cycle and reflects a lesson study approach. The three-part cycle invol ves a small-group seminar, individual observation, and a coaching debrief. A LEAP team leader – a content-specific teacher leader, coach, or school administrator who has release time to work with teachers to improve their instructiona l practice – leads the weekly 90-minute LEAP seminar. LEAP teams are content- specific and, as much as possible, grade-specific, to deepen content knowledge and hone teaching practices in the precise context in which they will be applied. 23 Because seminars are designed to be practice-forward, teachers spend the next week implementing in their classrooms what they learned in the seminar t he week before. For example, one week a seminar might focus on the concept of fluency practice. During the seminar, teachers learn about the research base and rationale for different strategies and then practice the strategies prior to trying them out the following week with their students. In math, to expert ly implement the curriculum, many teachers need to deepen their content knowledge: they need deep com prehension of why a math algorithm works in a certain way and how to recognize common misunderstandings that lead to student mistakes. Teachers follow up by bringing student work to weekly seminars to collabo ratively assess student progress and to strategize about how to address learning gaps in future assignments. While teachers use what they practiced in the prior week’s seminar, the LEAP team leader conducts a 15-minute classroom observation, which represents the second part of the LEAP cycle. 24 The observation is intentionally brief because it is non-evaluative and entirely growth ori ented, allowing the focus to stay solely on the translation of professional learning into classroom practice. 25 The final part of the weekly cycle is the 45-minute debrief of the obs ervation. The LEAP team leader meets with the teacher to review what was observed during the classroom visit. Together they identify observable growth in instruction relative to what was learned in the seminar. The team leader and the teacher also identify areas of practice that need further development, which helps bo th the individual teacher improve and the team leader plan subsequent seminar topics. Team leaders in each school are the linchpin of the weekly learning cycle and of building a trusting, respectful learning culture among teachers. Before they begin their role , team leaders attend a two-week DCPS’s goal is to become known as the district where teachers learn to become exper ts at their craft. LEAP Seminar (90 minutes) LEAP Mini- Observation (15 minutes) LEAP Observation Debrief (45 minutes) DCPS’s Weekly LEAP Cycle Aspen Institute 9 intensive summer training where they learn about adult learning theory and the design of the weekly LEAP cycle; they also receive content-specific training. Team leaders practice what to look for during observations and learn how to tailor professional learning seminars to fit the needs of the individual teachers with whom they work. The summer intensive session also provides team leaders time to adapt the LEAP weekly cycle to the context of their individual schools. During the year, team leaders receive weekly seminar plans and content resources to help guide the professional learning of their teams. Implementing LEAP required significant resource reallocation and role redefinition. Master educator positions, part of DCPS’s vaunted IMPACT teacher evaluation system, were eliminated so those resources could be redirected into developing content-specific LEAP team leaders . Additional support inside the school comes from assistant principals, who are expected to have a conte nt-area focus and to serve as LEAP team leaders. The district shifted central office teams to steer and s upport the LEAP process, and Leading Educators, which helped design the teacher-leader initiative, supports central office leaders in creating content-rich, curriculum-centered professional learning and leadership d evelopment experiences for the LEAP team leads. As with any reform, DCPS made trade-offs and accepted certain risks. Req uiring that every school implement LEAP across the district in one fell swoop invited pushback and surface-level compliance from some school staff. But district leaders felt that equity demanded the acceleration o f efforts to ensure that all students across the district have the same high-quality learning experiences via consistent lessons. While the district maintains a tight hold on the focus of the weekly seminars, it gives tea chers a big say in how LEAP is carried out in their school. As district administrator Jennifer Jump observed, “We are having many more authentic conversations around the work, and it is a beautiful sight to see. Inste ad of conversations about how many lunches are needed, spontaneous conversations are popping up in the corr idors, between classes, and after school about this text or about how a teacher is getting such a high lev el of writing from her students.” TEACHING LAB IN WEST VIRGINIA Grassroots Take Hold in the Mountain State Like most states, West Virginia raised expectations for student learning dramatically when it recently adopted the West Virginia College and Career Readiness Standards. But related guidanc e, expert support, and aligned materials were still in short supply when a group of West Virginia teachers took their own initiative in the spring of 2014. Professional developers from the Regional Education Service Agency (RESA 3) had tried to support teachers in making the instructional shifts required by the standards. “ Even with all the curricular materials, administrator support and instructional coaching, teachers struggled to enact new instructional strategies,” observed professional developer Mandy Flora, and “it was clear mass PD ses sions with minimal follow-up were not going to change classroom instruction.” A group of inspired and determined teachers took control and launched pr ofessional learning on their own, with minimal but important external supports. Through professional devel opment with RESA 3, several West Virginia teachers learned about grassroots initiatives taking hold in ot her states, where teams of teachers were developing and adapting rich tasks and accompanying instructional u nits, trying them out, and then bringing back examples of student work to the group to reflect on idea s for improving the next stage of instruction. When the West Virginia teachers heard that a leader of this collaborative inquiry process was going to be supporting teams of teachers in Washington, D.C., they jumped at the chance to experience it themselves. After convincing the state education agency to reimburse them for a rent al car, these teachers hit the road. Team leaders in each school are the linchpin of the weekly learning cycle and of building a trusting, respectful learning culture among teachers. Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 10 In the fall of 2014, Mandy and four teachers from three schools in three different districts drove back and forth to DC twice to participate in collaborative analysis and inquiry cycles, which were modeled on the Core Task Project launched in Washoe County, Nevada. 26 In spring 2015, these teachers brought inquiry cycles to life in their own schools under the name West Virginia Teaching Lab. With support from the state’s chief academic officer, the regional support office hosted teams of teachers three times – in March, April, and May – to facilitate collaborative inquiry and improvement discussions. Supported by experts from the nonprofit Stude nt Achievement Partners (SAP), the teachers who had gone to DC learned how to recruit other teachers us ing community organizing strategies, drawing together a coalition of the willing to do deep work on aligning instruction to the standards. These same SAP experts helped the West Virginia Teaching Lab teachers select and adapt high-quality content; shared resources and models for conducting inquiry cycles in schools; and assisted in planning and facilitating the initial inquiry cycles. Silas Kulkarni, one of the experts from SAP, recognized that a little help could go a long way: “There are a lot of teachers, especially in remo te places, who don’t have much access to formal support, but who have lots of talent, drive, and initiative. H ighly curated content and facilitation support can take their work to the next level.” Teaching Lab, a new non-profit that Kulkarni helped co- found, aims to replicate the West Virginia Teaching Labs by providing similar support to teachers across the country (disclosure: the two authors of this report serve on the board of Teaching Lab). 27 Resource and logistical constraints, especially in rural areas, meant te achers often did not have release time for these efforts; some teachers were able to focus professional learnin g communities in their schools on conducting inquiry cycles, while other teachers pursued this work on personal time in the evening or on weekends, with modest stipends from RESA 3. Typically, a monthly inquiry cycle included a half-day group meeting to study new content, three to four weeks to teach the content t o students and collect evidence of their learning, and then a second half-day to analyze student work and r eflect on the success of the lesson. The collaborative learning felt so energizing and meaningful that the te achers made the time to work together — and their enthusiasm kept attracting new teachers. Curriculum choices were not consistent across these districts or schools and misaligned materials w ere still prevalent in the field, with many districts awaiting new adoptio n cycles. To address this challenge, teachers identified exemplar lessons or resources to try out in common that undergirded their professional community. Teachers supplemented the curriculum they were assigned to use with open educational resources from some of the most prominent sources of standards-aligned m aterials, such as Achieve the Core and the Basal Alignment Project, and put these materials at the center o f their collaborative inquiry work. 28 Once teachers had selected exemplars from the open educational resources available, they studied them, planned instruction, and then practiced with peers before implementing i n their classrooms. The teachers came back to each work session with student work samples to trade and an alyze, and then planned what to do next. This teacher-led, collaborative, and non-evaluative approach created dramatically hi gher trust and ownership among teachers. In the words of one participant, “Instead o f ‘do this because you have to’ it was ‘do this and see what you think.’” West Virginia’s Monthly Inquir y Cycle Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Half-day to analyze student work and reflect on the success of the lesson Half-day group meeting to study new content Three to four weeks to teach the content to students and collect evidence of their learning Aspen Institute 11 This deeper buy-in led to organic growth of the groups, with new West Virginia Teaching Labs springing up in different locations and subjects, sometimes led by former participant s from previous labs. From a core group of four teachers and a regional coach, there are now approximately 100 teachers engaged in the process from at least six school districts across West Virginia, supported with small regional and state grants and technical assistance. The inquiry cycles and professional conversations these West Virginia teachers have undertaken through their Teaching Labs are at the heart of improving teaching and learning at scale. It might be messy and imprecise, especially as teachers try to develop a shared vision for instruction and student learning outcomes that genuinely reflect the aspiration of the standards. But as one RESA 3 facilitator reasoned, this is an example where “you have to go slow to go fast.” At the end of the day, classrooms won’t reflect the profound rigor of college- and career-ready standards if teachers don’t have a deep understanding of the standards themselves. Policymakers are taking note of the grassroots enthusiasm and success of this work. The West Virginia Board of Education has embraced Learning Forward’s professional learning standards and has set the goal of all schools becoming “Learning Schools” over five years. Regional su pport agencies (RESAs) were directed to support schools and districts in their efforts to more closely align pro fessional learning to these standards. The state is supporting and studying schools at the vanguard of this eff ort, dubbed “Catalyst Schools,” to share their lessons with others. As a matter of policy, West Virginia’s education leaders have signaled that transforming teachers’ and principals’ professional learning is a priority. All of this paved the way for RESA 3 to allocate resources to local Teaching Labs; now this example is being shared with teachers around the state. The inquir y cycles and professional conversations these West Virginia teachers have under taken through their Teaching Labs are at the hear t of improving teaching and learning at scale. Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 12 Key Takeaways and Recommendations for System Leaders 1. Curriculum quality matters a lot . Professional learning cannot live up to its potential unless it’s rooted in the content teachers teach in their classrooms. Similarly, the resulting professional learning won’t be excellent unless the underlying instructional materials are excellent. System leaders who want to foster effective and relevant professional learning using instructional materials should focus in the first insta nce on making sure the instructional materials reflect the full aspiration of college and career readiness. 29 It’s the professional learning equivalent of “you are what you eat.” Curriculum and associated tasks and assessments signal the performance level expected of students, which becomes the starting place for identifying teachers’ learning needs. High-quality curriculum is an essential baseline for equity because it ensures all students engage with quality text and intellectually demanding tasks. In addition to scrutinizing standards alignment, an inquiry into quality also should examine other attributes, including whether (1) the materials reflect a diversity of students’ cultures and lived experiences; (2) the curriculum embeds rich culminating tasks and other quality ass essments;and (3) the materials anticipate and address the learning needs teachers will have in trying to enact the curriculum (anticipating and addressing teachers’ learning needs sometimes is referred to as a curriculum’s “educative features”). 30 There is a lot of inertia in keeping curriculum materials already in use , including the comfort of the familiar and the relationships and embedded supports provided by publish ers. Switching to materials with greater alignment to standards takes some or all of the following: techn ical knowledge regarding standards alignment, leadership and tenacity in the process of selecting materials, and political will. No one needs to start at square one anymore: For example, the evaluation work of Louisia na and EdReports can be used as guides. 31 Both used rigorous rubrics that measure alignment and usability; engage d and trained teams of expert teachers to review and rate popular options; and posted the re sults online for free. Moreover, additional high-quality curriculum are being made available all the time . These include open educational resources, which have the added benefit of engaging stakeholder commun ities and providing opportunities for continuous improvement, rather than waiting years for publication an d adoption cycles to run their course. 2. Content-specific inquiry cycles improve practice. Teaching is intellectually demanding, adaptive work. The learning that im proves practice must anchor in the context of teachers’ ongoing work (hence the connection to curri culum). 32 And teachers must be able to apply their learning; study how it worked for their students; bring b ack questions and suggestions to the group; and then repeat the cycle of learning, application, and reflect ion. The work in DCPS and in the Teaching Labs in West Virginia exemplify this approach. These practices were adapted from lesson study, which is prevalent in Japan (and similar practices exist in high-performing education systems all over the world). 33 Community accountability means every member of the team works to strengthen their practice and brings examples of student work and their own reflections back to the group. Experiencing new teaching methods with students, assessing their learning progress, and then thinking abou t what students will benefit from next is the sine qua non of professional learning: the whole point of this work. Ensuring protoc ols for using collaborative time effectively will make it more likely that teachers ca n spend precious time – the most scarce resource in schools – to focus on the work only they can do, w hich is to craft and facilitate meaningful learning experiences for their students. PART III Aspen Institute 13 3. Culture eats structure for lunch. Professional learning that changes practice relies on teachers’ activ e participation and willingness to be vulnerable and to take the stance of a learner. As education researcher Anthony S. Bryk stated in his study of improvement efforts, positive change depends on the “good will and en gagement of the people whose work is the subject of change.” 34 Uniting efforts to improve curriculum quality with efforts to improve p rofessional learning is unassailably a good idea, but if teachers experience it as a top-down compliance mandate or are preoccupied with accountability from the outset, positive change can be undermined and progress stunted. Creating a culture that embraces adult learning in service of student learning requires attending to teachers’ hearts as well as their minds. Researcher Carrie Leana cites the failure to invest in “teacher collaborations that strengthen skills, competence, and a school’s overall social capital” as the missing link in improvement efforts. She followed more than 1,000 elementary teachers across New York City and found that when teachers engaged in frequent peer-to-peer conversations centered on the complex task of instructing students in mathematics, increases in student achievement resulted – and gains were highest when collaborations led to feelings of trust and closeness among staff . 35 The effects of stronger collaborative culture in schools are powerful: according to the same study, “If a teacher’s social capital was just one standard deviation higher than the average , her students’ math scores increased by 5.7 percent.” It is worth noting that previously ineffec tive teachers performed as well as average teachers when they taught in schools with strong social capital. 36 One way system leaders can improve culture, and thus improve the effic acy of reforms, is to subject their own ideas and practices to the same sort of analysis, feedback, and impr ovement cycle expected of teachers. Soliciting feedback from teachers and changing system practice as a resu lt models good practice for teachers and shows that everyone is learning and pulling in the same direction. In West Virginia, teacher leaders who guide inquiry cycles meet with district leaders quarterly to give feedback on which policies are enabling or hindering their efforts. In DCPS and Louisiana, system leaders use both surveys and focus groups to gauge how reforms are perceived and enacted, and they use the results to adapt . 4. Teachers need time to improve instruction. To develop expertise, teachers need dedicated time to engage with peers d uring the school day, week, and year. It takes time to get familiar with instructional materials and the con tent knowledge they demand, and implementing college- and career-ready standards increases these expectations, including learning new pedagogical approaches. Researchers report that teachers who participate in substantial professi onal learning on an annual basis – averaging 49 hours across nine studies – see their students’ achie vement increase by about 21 percentile points. 37 Many high- performing international systems have teachers spending between 10 to 17 ho urs in the classroom per week, leaving substantial time for professional learni ng compared with US teachers, who spend around 27 hours in front of students weekly. 38 In the words of Linda Darling Hammond, “Effective professional development is intensive, ongoing, and connected to practic e; [it] focuses on the teaching and learning of specific academic content…and builds working relationsh ips among teachers.” 39 5. Content experts should facilitate professional learning. The inquiry cycles described above need to be facilitated by content experts; teac hers also need access to this expertise to improve as individual practitioners. This means tea cher leaders and other expert practitioners need additional dedicated time to learn (i.e., release time or fewer classes and preps) . They need opportunities to deepen their content knowledge and pedagogical exp ertise through access to content experts and collaboration with each other. They also need development as leaders so they can facilitate teams, diagnose teachers’ needs from observation and student work, and coach teachers to improve their practice. This additional time might take the form of a teacher on special assignm ent with or without current teaching responsibilities (a hybrid position) as is the case in Louisiana, or f ormal in-school teacher-leader roles and administrators with teaching experience and content expertise (as is th e case in DCPS). A cross-functional Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 14 leadership team, such as the one that exists within the West Virginia effort, can draw on the talents of multiple individuals as opposed to focusing on one all-encompassing lead er. 40 Whatever the configuration, content-specific roles must be designed to cultivate teaching expertis e in teachers. System leaders also should recognize the critical role of external expertise. All three of the profiled examples engaged experts who had spent years working across systems to advance th e vision of instruction aligned with college- and career-ready standards. There is a growing handful of organizations that have developed expertise in curating high-quality materials, facilitating teachers in e xploring the standards, designing and interpreting formative assessments, and using looking-at-student-work pr otocols to deepen teachers’ practice and their ability to advance student learning. System leaders should tak e advantage of these organizations strategically, augmenting expertise when necessary but always aiming to build capacity within their schools and systems. 6. System leaders have vital roles and responsibilities too. The most important professional learning – job-embedded, ongoing, res ponsive to demonstrated student learning needs – either happens for teachers in schools or it does no t happen. 41 Because teaching is highly context-specific, schools are the essential unit of change for improvi ng the quality, relevance, and efficacy of professional learning in ways that deepen teaching expertise and impr ove student learning. 42 That said, system leaders have vitally important roles and responsibilities. In par ticular, equity considerations must be addressed proactively to ensure that schools with higher proportions of low-income students and students of color have the resources, personnel, and support to sponsor high-qual ity, applied learning experiences within the school community. While different systems will allow for different levels of autonomy at t he school and team levels, some enabling conditions should be guaranteed across schools. For example, sc hools might have options regarding curriculum, but system leaders should ensure an adequate suppl y and use of high-quality options. Likewise, protected time for teacher learning cannot be compromised; sch ools may have discretion in how to build schedules and what students are doing while teachers are engage d in learning activities, but every teacher should be part of a team with dedicated time. 43 Systems have an especially important role in supporting teacher leaders to lead learning among their peers. 44 This means creating new roles, developing selection criteria and traini ng for leaders, and ensuring principals embrace a distributed leadership model. The challenge is stee p in many places because this aspect of professional advancement has been under-resourced in the United States relative to higher performing systems around the world. 45 It can be tempting to divide professional learning into top-down or bott om-up approaches, but the three examples profiled indicate these labels are inapt because it takes som e of each to achieve the best results. There are trade-offs between a “push” strategy mandating specifi c activities, which can get to scale quickly but runs the risk of a compliance approach, vs. a “pull” strategy that allows for more organic uptake and ownership but may extend the timeline for full implementation. System leaders need to know their context and decide what change strateg ies will be most effective for them. For instance, Louisiana recognized that voluntary adoption of its recommendations was best in its context, while DCPS leaders were building on a track record of system-wi de, mandatory implementation of human capital reforms and decided to go to scale more quickly (this also partly reflects the difference between scaling within a district vs. a whole state). The Teaching Labs in West Virginia represent a truly grassroots effort; the next several years will determine whether system leaders can capitalize on this authentic ownership at the local level to spread resources and supports across man y more teachers, schools, and districts. Aspen Institute 15 Conclusion For professional learning to be optimally relevant and useful to teacher s, it needs to build on the instructional materials teachers use in their classrooms. Separating the work of implementing standards- aligned curriculum from the ongoing professional learning in which teach ers engage is not only inefficient but also incoherent; it undermines the success of both. System leaders h ave a responsibility to intentionally weave these work streams together. By making these two parts of a whole, they can accelerate and deepen progress to the benefit of teachers and their students. High-quality, standards-aligned curriculum and accompanying student tasks are rich e nough to occupy many years of developing teachers’ professional expertise. As one teacher put it: “Teachers should not be expected to be the composers of the music as well as the conductors of the orches tra.” 46 System leaders should respect the artistry and skill required to teach students for deep comprehension, and they should align systems to support teachers in meeting this goal. Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 16 Acknowledgments The authors extend their gratitude to the practitioners, researchers, an d thought partners who provided valuable insights and feedback on this publication. The authors alone are responsible for the recommendations herein and for any inaccuracies or errors. zz Stephanie Banchero, Senior Program Officer, The Joyce Foundation zz Mandy Flora, Staff Development Director, RESA 3, West Virginia Department of Education zz Ben Jensen, CEO, Learning First zz Jennifer Jump, Director of Elementary Literacy, District of Columbia Public Schools zz Silas Kulkarni, Co-founder and Executive Director, Teaching Lab zz Lynn Olson, Consultant zz Brian Pick, Chief of Teaching and Learning, District of Columbia Public Schools zz Mark Sass, Colorado State Policy Director, Teach Plus, and Teacher Leader, Adams 12 Five Star Schools zz Whitney Whealdon, Director of Academic Content, Louisiana Department of Education zz Judy Wurtzel, Director of Education, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation zz Members of the Aspen Institute Urban Literacy Leadership Network About the Authors Ross Wiener is a vice president at the Aspen Institute and executive director of th e Education & Society Program. Ross leads a team of educators and analysts in creating rich le arning experiences for education leaders and policymakers and creating resources to assist leaders in imp roving educational outcomes. From 2002 to 2009, Ross was policy director and then vice president for progr am and policy at The Education Trust. Ross also served for five years as a trial attorney in the U.S. Department of Justi ce, Civil Rights Division, Educational Opportunities Section. Susan Pimentel is a founding partner of Student Achievement Partners, a nonprofit de voted to accelerating student achievement by supporting effective and innovative implementatio n of college and career readiness standards. She is also co-founder of StandardsWork, a nonprofit leading the Knowledge Matters campaign. Before her work as lead writer of the Common Core for English Language A rts and Literacy, Susan was a chief architect of the American Diploma Project, which was designed to c lose the gap between high school demands and postsecondary expectations. Susan served two terms on the National Assessment Governing Board, an independent, bipartisan board that sets policy for the nationa l assessment. She holds a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education and a law degree from Cornell Univer sity. Aspen Institute 17 Endnotes 1. To review the learning goals for students laid out by the Common Core State Standards, see http://www. corestandards.org/read-the-standards/ . To review which states have adopted Common Core and which have adopted a modified version, see http://www.c-sail. org/resources/blog/just-how-common-are-standards-common-core-states . 2. Rosann Tung, “Innovations in Educational Equity for English Language Learners,” Voices in Urban Education , The Annenberg Institute, 2013, http:// vue.annenberginstitute.org/issues/37/innovations-educational-equity-english-language-learners . 3. For more on how poor and minority students disproportionately receive lower quality teaching than their more affluent peers, see “Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality,” Heather Peske and Kati Haycock, Education Trust, June 2006, http://edtrust.org/wp- content/uploads/2013/10/TQReportJune2006.pdf . 4. For information on how professional development grounded in curriculum and classroom practice is more likely to increase instructional capacity, see “Professional Development to Support Instructional Improvement: Lessons From Research” (working paper), Alix Gallagher, SRI International, October 2016, https://www.sri.com/ work/publications/professional-development-support-instructional-improvement-lessons-research . 5. Linking professional learning to curriculum is a promising improvement strategy but isn’t a silver bullet or a comprehensive agenda for high-quality professional learning. For a broader context, see “Elements of a Professional Learning System,” Aspen Institute (forthcoming, 2017). 6. For more on how curriculum could enable and enhance professional development, see Deborah Loewenberg Ball and David K. Cohen, “Reform by the Book: What is – or Might Be – the Role of Curriculum Materials in Teacher Learning and Instructional Reform,” Educational Researcher, Volume 25, Number 9, http:// www-personal.umich.edu/~dkcohen/downloads/CohenReformBytheBook.pdf . 7. For information on how professional learning incorporates curriculum in British Columbia, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Singapore, see Ben Jensen, Julie Sonnemann, Katie Roberts-Hull, and Amélie Hunter, “Beyond PD: Teacher Professional Learning in High-Performing Systems,” National Center on Education and the Economy, 2016, http://www.ncee.org/wp-content/ uploads/2015/08/BeyondPDWeb.pdf . 8. Investment in teacher development in large urban districts can cost $15,000-$20,000 per teacher per year. See Karen Hawley Miles, David Rosenberg, and Genevieve Quist Green, “Igniting the Learning Engine: How School Systems Accelerate Teacher Effectiveness and Student Growth through ‘Connected Professional Learning,’” Education Resource Strategies, April 2017. For more on how most professional learning doesn’t meet teachers’ needs, see “Teachers Know Best: Teachers’ Views on Professional Development,” The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2014, http://k12education. gatesfoundation.org/learning/teacher_views_on_pd/ , and Laurie Calvert, “Moving from compliance to agency: What teachers need to make professional learning work,” Learning Forward and NCTAF, 2016. 9. In a randomized experiment, the Center for American Progress found that switching to a better curriculum was almost 40 times more cost-effective than reducing class size. See Ulrich Boser, Matthew Chingos, and Chelsea Strauss, “The Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform: Do States and Districts Receive the Most Bang for Their Curriculum Buck?” Center for American Progress, October 2015, https://cdn.americanprogress. org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/06111518/CurriculumMatters-report.pdf . A study by the Brookings Institute showed that choosing a better second-grade mathematics curriculum was more effective than replacing an average teacher with an above average one. See Matthew M. Chingos and Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst, “Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core,” The Brookings Institution, April 2012, https://www.brookings.edu/ research/choosing-blindly-instructional-materials-teacher-effectiveness-and-the-common-core/ . 10. C. Kirabo Jackson and Alexey Makarin, “Can Online Off-the-Shelf Lessons Improve Student Outcomes? Evidence from a Field Experiment,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, July 2016, http://www.nber. org/papers/w22398 . 11. A 2016 Rand study cites 99 percent of ELA teachers reporting that they developed their own curriculum materials, with the percentages nearly identical in mathematics: V. Darleen Opfer, Julia H. Kaufman, and Lindsey E. Thompson, “Implementation of K-12 State Standards for Mathematics and English Language Arts and Literacy,” RAND Corporation, 2016, https://www. rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1529-1.html . 12. See Chingos and Whitehurst, “Choosing Blindly.” For research showing that some of the highest-quality elementary school math curricula cost around $36 per student, see Boser et al., “The Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform.” With open educational resources such as EngageNY, Illustrative Mathematics, and Student Achievement Partners’ Basal Alignment materials already available (and others coming online), cost need not be a barrier to accessing high-quality materials. 13. It is estimated that a teacher makes 1,500 decisions – judgment calls regarding what to do next based on student interactions and the application of a teacher’s content and pedagogical knowledge – every day, http:// www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/teacher-makes-1500-decisions-a-day/ . For more on how to develop teacher expertise, see Dylan Wiliam, “2. Teacher Expertise: Why It Matters, and How to Get More of It,” in Joe Hallgarten, Louise Bamfield, and Kenny McCarthy (Ed.), Licensed to Create: Ten Essays on Improving Teacher Quality, Action and Research Centre of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, 2014, http://www.claimyourcollege.org/wp-content/ uploads/2015/01/Dylan-Wiliam.pdf . 14. Joseph A. Taylor, Stephen R. Getty, Susan M. Kowalski, Christopher D. Wilson, Janet Carlson, and Pamela Van Scotter, “An Efficacy Trial of Research-Based Curriculum Materials with Curriculum-Based Professional Development,” American Educational Research Journal, Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum and Professional Learning in Schools 18 October 2015, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/ abs/10.3102/0002831215585962 . 15. James David Bryson, “Engaging Adult Learners: Philosophy, Principles and Practices,” 2013, http:// northernc.on.ca/leid/docs/engagingadultlearners.pdf . 16. See http://achievethecore.org/page/1946/instructional- materials-evaluation-tool . 17. LearnZillion is a K-12 digital curriculum and professional services provider: https://learnzillion.com/p/ . 18. See https://www.louisianabelieves.com/academics/ ONLINE-INSTRUCTIONAL-MATERIALS-REVIEWS/curricular-resources-annotated-reviews . 19. See https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/ research_reports/RR1600/RR1613/RAND_RR1613.pdf . 20. Ibid. 21. See https://dcps.dc.gov/page/cornerstones . 22. See http://www.leadingeducators.org/ . 23. Because of the curriculum changes noted above, teachers within a certain grade are on the same pacing calendar, allowing them to focus on teaching the same mathematical concept or practicing a skill using the same text(s). 24. Because of staffing shortages at the high school level, observations occur every other week and special education and ESL teachers are observed monthly. For the 2016-17 school year LEAP has been implemented only for core content teachers. 25. DCPS teachers will now receive more than 30 observations per year. 26. See http://edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2014/ Common-Core-in-the-Districts/Common-Core-In-The-Districts-Nevada-FINAL.pdf . 27. See www.teachinglab.us . 28. See www.achievethecore.org and http://achievethecore. org/page/743/basal-alignment-project . 29. For information on how effective instructional materials reduce the variability in performance across teachers and raise the overall performance level, as well as the importance of collecting data at the state level about instructional materials used to inform policymaking, see Chingos and Whitehurst, “Choosing Blindly.” 30. For more on culturally responsive curricular materials, see Elizabeth Kozleski, “Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!” The Equity Alliance at Arizona State University, 2010, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED520957.pdf . For more on embedding rich culminating tasks, see Philip Cohen, “Designing Performance Assessment Tasks,” Education Update, Volume 37, Number 6, August 1995, http://www.ascd.org/publications/ newsletters/education-update/aug95/vol37/num06/Designing-Performance-Assessment-Tasks.aspx . For more on educative features, see Elizabeth A. Davis and Joseph S. Krajcik, “Designing Educative Curriculum Materials to Promote Teacher Learning,” Educational Researcher, Volume 34, Number 3, April 2005, http:// www.project2061.org/research/ccms/site.archive/documents/Promote_Teacher_Learning.pdf . 31. See http://www.louisianabelieves.com/academics/ ONLINE-INSTRUCTIONAL-MATERIALS-REVIEWS/curricular-resources-annotated-reviews and http://www.edreports.org/#f=&o=0 . 32. Creating cycles of professional learning will require rethinking how resources are deployed in schools. See Miles et al., “Igniting the Learning Engine,” p 14. 33. Jensen et al., “Beyond PD,” p. 39. 34. Anthony Bryk, Louis M. Gomez, Alicia Grunnow, and Paul G. LeMahieu, Learning to Improve: How America’s Schools Can Get Better at Getting Better, Harvard Education Press, March 2015. 35. Carrie Leana, “The Missing Link in School Reform,” Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2011, https://www2.ed.gov/programs/slcp/2011progdirmtg/mislinkinrfm.pdf . 36. Ibid. 37. Kwang Suk Yoon, Teresa Duncan, Silvia Wen-Yu Lee, Beth Scarloss, and Kathy L. Shapley, “Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement,” Regional Education Laboratory, Edvance Research Inc., October 2007, https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/REL_2007033.pdf . 38. That said, in the case of British Columbia, teachers spend about 23 hours per week in the classroom and yet still it maintains its position as one of the top-performers in the world. See Jensen et al., “Beyond PD,” p. 28. 39. Linda Darling-Hammond, Ruth Chung Wei, Alethea Andree, Nikole Richardson, and Stelios Orphanos, “Professional Learning in the Learning Profession,” National Staff Development Council, 2009, https:// learningforward.org/docs/pdf/nsdcstudy2009.pdf . 40. For more on how intensive collaboration helps teachers deepen their instructional expertise and how an artisan- apprentice relationship between experts and new teachers helps the latter build their skills, see Kenneth Baum and David Krulwich, The Artisan Teaching Model for Instructional Leadership: Working Together to Transform Your School, ASCD, 2016. 41. Andrew Croft, Jane G. Coggshall, Megan Dolan, Elizabeth Powers, and Joellen Killion, “Job-Embedded Professional Development: What It Is, Who Is Responsible, and How to Get It Done Well,” National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, Mid-Atlantic Comprehensive Center, and National Staff Development Council Issue Brief, April 2010, https://learningforward.org/docs/pdf/ jobembeddedpdbrief.pdf . 42. Michael Fullan, “Change Processes and Strategies at the Local Level,” The Elementary School Journal, Volume 85, Number 3, 1985, http://www.project2061.org/ publications/designs/online/pdfs/reprints/6_fullan.pdf . 43. Miles et al., “Igniting the Learning Engine,” and Hayes Mizell, “Why Professional Development Matters,” Learning Forward, 2010, https://learningforward.org/ docs/pdf/why_pd_matters_web.pdf . 44. For more information on structuring teacher-leader initiatives, see Leading From the Front of the Classroom, Aspen Institute and Leading Educators, 2015, http://www.aspendrl.org/portal/browse/ DocumentDetail?documentId=2402&download . 45. For more information on international practice, see Lynn Olson, Teaching Policy to Improve Student Learning: Lessons From Abroad, Aspen Institute, February 2007, https://assets.aspeninstitute.org/content/uploads/files/content/docs/education/Ed_Lessons_from_Abroad.pdf . 46. See http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/ editorsnote_0.pdf . Aspen Institute